Tuesday, November 26, 2019

To investigate how surface area effects the rate of reaction in Calcium Carbonate Essays

To investigate how surface area effects the rate of reaction in Calcium Carbonate Essays To investigate how surface area effects the rate of reaction in Calcium Carbonate Essay To investigate how surface area effects the rate of reaction in Calcium Carbonate Essay This experiment is working on the theory of diffusion. Diffusion is the movement of particles. Three main things effect the rate of diffusion:- The distance of particles. Diffusion is quickest in gases as gas has a larger space between molecules making diffusion occur faster.- The energy of particles. The temperature effects the rate of reaction because the higher the temperature the faster the reaction.- The mass of particles. The effect of mass is caused by the relationship between the speed of particles and their temperature.Diffusion occurs in all the states of matter. However they most noticeably take place in liquids and gases. An example of this is Brownian Motion. Robert Browning noticed that when looking under a microscope pollen grains were moving in a random way. This movement is explained by assuming water molecules were hitting the pollen grains in a random way causing the pollen to move erratically.Brownian motion and diffusion provide evidence t o support the kinetic theory. The kinetic theory is kinetic energy cannot be created loss or destroyed. Instead it is converted to another form of energy. Particles have kinetic energy the energy of movement. Gases have the greatest kinetic energy and solids the least.This experiment also works on the Collision theory. Chemical reactions can be explained by the collision theory. For particles to react they must collide and they must have sufficient energy to react. There are many factors that effect the rate of reaction.- If the size of the reacting particles is decreased, there is more surface area available for reacting and so the speed of reaction increases.- When a solution becomes more concentrated, the number of particles present in the solution increases.- Increasing temperature increases the speed at which the particles move. Thus speeding up the reaction.Factors effecting the rate of reactionI am looking at the pros and cons of investigating each factor on the rate of reac tion.CatalystsPro- This speeds up the rate of reaction by helping bonds between atoms to break and form more easily. It is also reusableCon- The problem with this would be it makes this an unfair experiment unless you carefully measure out the same amount of catalayse.TemperaturePro-Heating it would speed up the experiment, and keeping it cold would slow it down. This is because if you heat it up it makes the water particles collide and move about more breaking up the marble chips faster.Con- Heating it is can be very dangerous and it could make the test tube explode.ConcentrationPro- You can see a definite difference if you use different concentrations.Con- It can be quite expensive using a large concentration of the chemical.Surface areaPro-Its inexpensive, practical and not dangerous.Con-It is a little inaccurate if not measured in exact sizes.ChoiceI have chosen to test the rate of reaction on surface area. This is because of all the reasons above can get around the con by using roughly the same size chip.PlanPre-testIve carried out the pre-test using different quantities of calcium carbonate and different quantities of Hydrochloric acid. The quantities with long and most vigorous reaction will be the quantity I will use in the investigation because it will give me a good set of results.ApparatusMedium sized Calcium carbonate chipsThree Test tubesScalesTimerMethod1. Measure 5g of calcium carbonate and measure 20ml of Hydrochloric acid.2. Put the calcium carbonate in the test tube, pour the acid in and quickly start the timer.3. Observe every ten seconds the weight of the marble chips and acid. Stop when the same weight occurs four times in a row.4. Repeat steps 1-3 with 10g of calcium carbonate and 40ml of hydrochloric acid.5. Repeat steps 1-3 with 15g of calcium carbonate and 60ml of hydrochloric acid.Results5g and 20ml of hydrochloric acid-Fast reaction and not very vigorous.10g and 40ml of hydrochloric acid-Long reaction and very vigorous.15g and 60ml o f hydrochloric acid-Long reaction and quite vigorous.Conclusion:This pre-test showed me that the best results to use in my investigation would be 10g and 40ml of Hcl. This was because this was the most vigorous and the longest results without wasting too much Hcl and Calcium carbonate.EvaluationThis pre-test was quite accurate. There was only one problem, acid was loss to the spitting I will use cotton wool to cover the top. The reason I will not use a cork stop is this will prevent all gas escaping. I will use wool because this will let gas escape but not acid.PredictionI predict that the large marble chips are going to take the longest to diffuse. The medium a fair amount of time to diffuse and the smallest chips will be the quickest to diffuse. I know this by my theory on diffusion and the collison theory. I know that If the size of the reacting particles is decreased, there is more surface area available for reacting and so the speed of reaction increases.EquipmentSmall, medium and Large marble chips.Conical flaskElectronic ScalesMeasuring cylinderHydrochloric acidCotton woolMethod1. Measure 10g of Marble chips in small, medium and large.2. Place the flask on the scales and take away the weight.3. Pour the large marble chips in the flask.4. Measure 40ml of hydrochloric acid and pour5. Quickly put the cotton wool on top and start the timer.6. Observe weight every ten seconds. Stop observing when the same weight repeats itself four times.7. Repeat steps 2-5 but use medium marble chips.8. Repeat steps 2-5 twice using small marble chips.9. Record all results in the table. Work out the averages of the small chips.DiagramResultsTime (sec)Large ChipsMedium ChipsSmall Chips (1)Small Chips (2)Average of small chips0102.1104.4102.6103.6100.610102.1104.1102.4103.5100.4520101.9103.9102.3103.5100.430101.8103.5102.2103.4100.340101.7103.4102.1103.3100.2550101.6103.3102103.2100.1560101.5103.2102103.2100.1570101.4103.2101.9103.1100.5580101.3103.1101.9103100.5590101.2103101 .9103100.55100101.2103101.9103100.55120101.1103130101.1103140101150101160100.9170100.9180100.9190100.8200100.8210100.7220100.7230100.7240100.7Analysis of ResultsSize of marble chipAmount lostLarge marble chips1.4gMedium sized marble chips1.4gSmall sized marble chips (average)0.05gConclusionThe rate of reaction should be longer for the small chips because more surface area for the hydrochloric acid to work on. The loss of mass is the largest in the big chips. However the loss in the medium chips is not as large as the small chips. The small chips loss of mass was consistent in the experiment. This is because the larger the surface area the faster the rate of reaction is. As you can see my results link back to my planning. In my planning it was said that if the size of the reacting particles is decreased, there is more surface area available for reacting and so the speed of reaction increases. This is true and matches up to my results.EvaluationMy experiment worked extremely well in t he plan but didnt work as well when I did the whole experiment. My results were not as accurate as expected. The flaws in my experiment were probably due to the following factors:* Timer wasnt started at exactly the time the marble chips went in.- To rectify this I will observe more carefully when to start the timer.* The cottons mass was not taken and deducted at the end.- I should next time take the mass of the cotton* Hydrochloric acid was not measured out properly.- I could maybe weigh the amount of hydrochloric acid used on some electronic scales.* Lots of people were in the room and were all walking about. People could have knocked the table causing the mixture to be swirled around a bit. Making the results slightly unfair.- I could possibly of done the experiment in a quite room on my own without distractions and lots of people walking about knocking the table.* The Calcium carbonate chips were not all the same size.- When choosing the chips I could of looked for similar size d chips to use so surface area was still the same.However even with these factors taken into account the experiment gave me my expected results. So I presume that these flaws in my experiment did not really effect the results.To further on my work I could look at how a catalyst would effect the rate of reactions. I could also look at all the other factor such as temperature and concentration and how they effect the rate of reaction.

Saturday, November 23, 2019

Motivation Tips For Students

Motivation Tips For Students Do you need motivation for doing your homework? Sometimes we all need a little prodding when it comes to getting our work done. If you ever feel like homework is pointless, you may find inspiration in the following tips. The problems below have been submitted by real students. Get Perspective! You’ve probably heard the old saying â€Å"I’ll never use this knowledge in the real world.† It’s time to set the record straight once and for all- that saying is completely false! When you start feeling like homework is a drag, it might help to start thinking about the reason you’re doing homework in the first place. The work you do now really is important, even though it’s probably hard to see sometimes. In truth, your nightly homework is work that will form the foundation for your future. Right now you are probably being forced to study topics that don’t interest you at all. It may seem cruel and unfair now, but it’s really an important and necessary â€Å"evil.† Why? Because a strong foundation must include a good mix of ingredients. You see, you may not believe that you’ll need your algebra skills later in life, but algebra sets the stage for understanding principles of science, economics, and business. It’s the same for English homework. You’ll need those skills desperately in college, and you’ll certainly need them to succeed in the world. Get an Attitude! Are you a math whiz? A great writer? Are you artistic- or maybe good at solving puzzles? Most students have a special talent in one particular area, so they enjoy doing homework on that topic. The problem comes when they avoid doing the other stuff. Sound familiar? The good news is that you don’t need to love everything. Just pick one area you love and become the self-appointed expert in your school. Get a serious attitude! Think of yourself as the very best on that one topic, and then make it a reality. For inspiration, you can create a web site or perhaps a series of podcasts about your topic. Become a star! Once you become an expert in your field, you will gain confidence in yourself and become more tolerant of the topics you don’t enjoy so much. You’ll start thinking of all your least favorite topics as â€Å"supporting† actors in your quest for a career in the area you love. Get Competitive! This problem could be real or imagined. Either way, this problem is the best kind! If you have a competitive spirit, you can have a lot of fun with this one. If you think you’re at a disadvantage to other students, you can turn things around by getting a competitive attitude. Think of every project as a challenge and set out to do your assignment better than anybody else. Try to surprise everyone- including the teacher- by doing outstanding work. If you feel like you are part of a misfit crowd, then it might help to team up with a friend or two. Put your heads together and plot to outdo the popular crowd. You’ll find that this can be very inspiring! Get Your Eye on the Prize! If you get bored just thinking about homework, then you may need to focus on setting and reaching goals. For instance, if you are having trouble getting started on a big science project, then divide your project into steps. Then, reward yourself each time you finish a step successfully. Your first step could be library research. Set a timeline for visiting the library and completing your research. Think of a good way to reward yourself, like a frothy iced coffee drink or another favorite treat. Then focus on the prize and make it happen! Your parents will probably support you in this endeavor. Just ask! There are many variations to the â€Å"eye on the prize† system. You may want to create a dream box or a bulletin board with pictures of big prizes, like the college of your dreams. Fill the box or board with the objects of your dreams and make a habit of looking at them often. In other words, keep your eyes on those prizes! Get Support! It’s unfortunate but true that some students don’t receive much encouragement or support when it comes to school work. Some students don’t have any encouragement from family or don’t even have any family at all. But that doesn’t mean nobody cares. There are lots of people who care very much that you succeed in school. Just think about it- this web site wouldn’t exist if somebody didn’t want you to succeed. There are many people who care. People in your school have a big stake in your success. They are judged on your performance. If you don’t do well, they don’t do well. Adults from all walks of life are concerned about education and the plight of students just like you. The state of education is a big topic of discussion and debate among adults. If you feel like you don’t get support at home, then find an education forum and talk about it. You’ll find that there are lots of people who are interested and willing to cheer you on!

Thursday, November 21, 2019

Conseptual analysis Article Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words

Conseptual analysis - Article Example Flow charts carry a similar function like other types of diagrams. They help in visualization of a process hence helping the user to understand deeper the meaning or flow of that process (John, 1984). There are different types of flow charts and each has its own design and national conventions. There are two common types of boxes in a flowchart. The first type is a processing step identified as an activity. Its denotations are rectangular in shape. The second type is a decision that is denoted as a diamond. Flowcharts are described as cross-functional where the pages in use are divided into different swim lanes (John, 1984). The lanes must be describing the control of different organizational units. For example, a symbol appearing in a particular lane is identified to be within the control of that organizational unit. Flowcharts depict certain aspects of processes (John, 1984). They are completed by drawing diagrams. Flow charts can be document flowcharts, data flowcharts, system flowcharts, or program flowcharts. They help best explain how a given system works by the use of a visual diagram. They are also helpful in brainstorming of ideas and plans. They demonstrate a high level of strategy application (John, 1984). They are graphic representations of flow of data through an information system. They help in creation of an overview of the system to be later elaborated. They show what information to input and output from a give system. They also show how the data will be either inputted or outputted and where the data will go or get stored. They are used in analysis and design phases of information processes (John, 1984). A visual image or document uses image as it primary means of communication. In other instances, visual images use the interaction of texts and images for communication. The goals of any visual analysis are to demonstrate an understanding of how the art communicates its message and meaning. This is done by breaking the

Tuesday, November 19, 2019

Why the Islamic Financial System has the Strength to Mitigate the Dissertation

Why the Islamic Financial System has the Strength to Mitigate the Current Financial Crisis - Dissertation Example The present financial crisis has been held to be a consequence of the failure of the financial systems being followed in various segments of the world. From the evaluation of perceptions of the people across the world, it has been evaluated that they urge towards identification of an appropriate alternative to the present financial system. They desire for an alternative that holds strong prospect of avoiding financial crisis in the future. Following the search for a perfect alternative, it was observed that the Islamic financial system is argued to be the best answer to the present problem of the international economy. Various economists purported that Islamic financial systems bear strong possibility of becoming successful alternative to the present financial system. For critically evaluating the argument, various sources have been reviewed through library search. The findings have been analysed through primarily qualitative approach and presentation of quantitative data about the e ffectiveness of the Islamic financial system. The findings suggested that although the Islamic financial system holds strong prospect to evolve as the most effective financial system of the world, comprehensively it cannot be implemented in the International market. This is because the Islamic financial system is still challenged with certain loopholes, the presence of which can hinder its effectiveness. Evidences have been provided in this research study with respect to the Islamic banking system’s effectiveness in certain portion of the world such as that of Malaysia while at the same time evidences have also been provided of its inefficiency in certain other parts of the world such as that of Pakistan and Middle East. Table of Contents Chapter One: Introduction 5 1.1Background of the Research 5 1.2 Problem Statement 7 1.3 Aim, Objectives and Research Questions 9 1.4 Structure of the Dissertation 10 Chapter Two: Literature Review 11 2.1. Introduction 11 2.2 Origins of Islam ic Banking and Finance 12 2.3. Islamic Financial System 14 2.4. The Islamic Financial System and the Crisis 16 2.5 Strength of the Islamic Financial System 22 2.6 Weaknesses of the Islamic Financial System 26 Chapter Three: Research Methodology 28 3.1. Overview of Research Philosophy & Approach 28 3.2. Research Strategy 29 3.3. Validation of Data Source 33 3.4. Validation of Data Collection & Data Analysis Process 33 3.5. Limitations of the Research Process 34 Chapter Four: Findings, Analysis and Discussion 36 4.1. Introduction 36 4.2. Critical Evaluation of the Facts about Islamic Financial System 37 4.3 Empirical Evidence of Effectiveness of Islamic Financial Systems in other Counterparts of the World 44 Chapter Five: Conclusion & Recommendation 59 5.1. Overview 59 5.2. Facts Generated from the Research Study 59 5.2.1. Challenges Faced by the Islamic Finance System 59 5.2.2. Strengths of the Islamic Finance System that Helped it Survive the Financial Crisis 61 5.2.3. Reasons behin d the Growth in Islamic Finance 63 5.3. Recommendation for Future Works 64 6.0. References 66 7.0. Bibliography 81 Chapter One: Introduction 1.1Background of the Research According to the verse of the Great Allah (swt) about Islamic nation, â€Å"You are the best of the nation raised up for mankind because you enjoin what is right and forbid the wrong and believe in Allah†. The Islamic nations are blessed with the trait of being the world’s best nations brought up from humanity.1 The nation understands its responsibility well that people need to be aggressive in rising against immorality and unfairness. One of such wrong deeds, observed by the Islamic nations, is the economic coercion and injustice that is adversely affecting the world.2 The recent financial crisis initiated within the

Sunday, November 17, 2019

19th and 20th Century Gender Expectations in Literature Essay Example for Free

19th and 20th Century Gender Expectations in Literature Essay The late 19th century produced a myriad of successful authors, poets and play-writes that often incorporated the local customs, traditions and expectations of the time (and perhaps their own experiences) into their work. A fact of the times, even into early 20th century, is that women were not equal to men and the expectations of women were not equal as well. This point will be illustrated by comparative analysis of two separate forms of literature: Tristan Bernard’s humorous play I’m Going! A Comedy in One Act, and Kate Chopin’s short story â€Å"The Story of an Hour. † Authors can use plays, stories or poems to bring us into their world, and through imagination we can connect with them, if only briefly, and enjoy their point of view and what they are trying to convey. Through their writing, they are actually giving us a look at history and through that snapshot of time we can see the differences between society’s expectations then and now. Tristan Bernard’s (1866-1947) I’m Going! A Comedy in One Act (1915), (Clugston, 2010a), is a play set in Paris about a married couple (Henri and Jeanne) who on a Sunday morning are trying to decide how they are going to spend their day. Henri wants to go to the races but he wants Jeanne to stay home, though she wants to go with him, or to see her friend (Clugston, 2010a). The theme of the play is one of distrust and manipulation, as each truly wants to spend the day on their own, and at the end of the play that is exactly what they do (Clugston, 2010a). See more: Analysis of Starbucks coffee company employees essay In this play, Bernard uses the setting of the stage and symbolism to convey to the audience a sense of separate desires of the couple starting with the opening scene when Henri and Jeanne enter and sit on opposite sides of the room (Clugston, 2010a). Bernard, in fact, used symbolism in many of his works, and exploited the psychoanalytical technique to draw his dramas together (Degasse, 2008). What one really has to look through the mist to see, however, is how Bernard incorporates society’s expectations (or double standard) of women in  Paris (and throughout the world, really), though in a humorous and dramatic style, into the play. One has to keep in mind that the male audience of that time probably had the same attitude and beliefs as the character Henri, and though it may have been viewed as right or wrong, women were expected to be subservient and obedient while the male was allowed further freedoms. Henri wants to goes to the races alone, and ultimately, that is what he does while Jeanne stays home, but let us look deeper at the play and uncover the nuances that show the inequality of the times and how Bernard conveys that conviction. After Henri and Jeanne’s initial entrance and they set down, the first thing that happens is Henri makes a comment about how every Sunday the weather is nice until noon, then its cloudy and rainy or there is an advancing thunderstorm (Clugston, 2010a). This verbal observation of the weather may be a metaphor and actually provide two meanings; one is that it is in fact rainy and Henri is setting a negative atmosphere for Jeanne who expects him to take her out for the day, and the other could be the weekly Sunday dilemma of Henri trying to go to the races without Jeanne. The rainy, or soon to be, day also sets a tone of despair, but provides Henri with an excuse to go to the races alone and save him and his wife the additional cost of a carriage in order to avoid the rain, and additional cost of a ladies ticket (Clugston, 2010a). In truth, it is just a manipulation of the circumstances for Henri to try to dissuade Jeanne in joining him at the races (Clugston, 2010a). Then in Bernard’s I’m Going, A Comedy in One Act (1915), Henri recommends a promenade (a walk) with his wife instead of accompanying him to the races and Jeanne responds â€Å"Yes, up the Champs-Elysees together! And have you looking daggers at me all the time! Whenever I do go with you, you’re always making disagreeable remarks. † Henri responds with â€Å"Because you are in a bad humor – you’ll never give me your arm. † (Jeanne called him on his bluff, because he really doesn’t want to take a walk either), (cited in Clugston, 2010a, 1. 1. 26-29). She has no real intention of going for a walk with him as she did not intend to go to the races, but does not want to see him go alone to the races and enjoy himself alone, either. This is another example of manipulation; her manipulating him and vice versa, and starts the back and forth farce of both supposedly wanting to spend the day together when they really do not (Clugston, 2010a). When Jeanne decides Henri can go to the races alone because she intends to go see a friend, Henri decides he will stay at home and not go to the races (Clugston, 2010a). This is an obvious representation of the husband not trusting the wife, and even though she has given sanction to him to proceed, he abandons all intentions to leave because of his suspicion of her meeting with her friend and also perhaps meeting another man. The deception between both characters is obvious at this point in the play but not obviously clear as to why. Though we know by this point that Henri’s intention has always been to go to the races alone, it is not yet clear why Jeanne reacts the way she does. Is it that she is abused, or expected to stay home alone while Henri goes to the races, or does she have her own nefarious agenda, or both? Finally, and after much back and forth ruse of both characters, Jeanne decides to stay at home alone and lets Henri leave for the races alone, only to delight in the fact that she can spend her afternoon working on hats and enjoying chocolate at home as detailed immediately after Henri departs for the races in Bernard’s I’m Going! A Comedy in One Act (1915), (cited by Clugston, 2010a, 1. 1. 81-185): (Waits for a moment, listens, and hears the outer door close, then rises, and goes to the door at the back. She speaks to someone off-stage) Marie, don’t go before you get me a large cup of chocolate. Bring two rolls, too. Oh, and go at once to my room and bring me my box of ribbons and those old hats. (She comes down- stage, and says beaming) What fun I’ll have trimming hats! Throughout this play Jeanne is expected by Henri to stay at home while he enjoys the afternoon alone, and despite the opposition Jeanne gives him, she eventually desists and Henri has his way while she is left at home. This is an excellent example of how women were treated by their husbands then as compared to how most men and women interact today. There was probably no other recourse for the character Jeanne but to resolve herself to some enjoyment at home with her hats, and chocolate, and rolls. It could be argued that that is what she wanted all along, that she only wanted a reassurance that her husband loved her, but probably not, more than likely she simply had no other choice than to occupy her Sunday alone as best as she could and succumb to her husband’s wishes. There stands some ambiguity as to whether they really love each other, or if Jeanne is simply stuck and cannot get out of the situation she is in. Sixteen years earlier than the play by Tristan Bernard discussed above, but in the same era of male dominance, Kate Chopin (1850-1904) wrote several short stories and novels which also depict the sexist plight of women in her time and the choices they had to endure in order to survive, including quite possibly domestic violence in a time when no recourse was available (Tate, 2000). Unlike Bernard, who was a renowned writer at the age of 25, Chopin was considered a feminist, and as a young widow who had to raise six children alone when she lost her husband to swamp fever, she eventually succeeded by turning to writing and was widely accepted in the southern United States literary circle (Tucker, 1996). Much of her writing incorporates her own life experiences and tribulations, such as â€Å"The Awakening,† (1899) which depicts a 19th century woman who is adulterous, but maintains her strength and individuality despite of what society thinks about her (Tucker, 1996). It is of little doubt that Kate Chopin was of the same opinion and character of many of those characters in her stories. According to Leary (1968), much of her writing â€Å"Speaks of marital unhappiness and of dangers which lie in wait for people who do as they want to do without concern for other people† (p. 60). Kate Chopin’s â€Å"The Story of an Hour† (1894), (Clugston, 2010b), is written clearly and succinctly leaving little room for ambiguity or misinterpretation. Chopin’s direct style of writing draws the reader in quickly and gives immediate insight to what is happening and what the feelings of the characters are, thus increasing the understanding of what the author is trying to convey. Like Bernard, Chopin uses symbolism and tone to enhance the (in this case) imaginary setting to further the reader’s experience. Unlike Bernard, Chopin’s form was short stories and novels instead of plays to be performed in front of live audiences. It is also important to look at Kate Chopin from a biographical/historical perspective to realize Chopin has also used life experiences as a basis for some of her characters: in this story Mr. Mallard has reportedly been killed in a train accident, while in reality Kate Chopin’s father really was killed in a train accident (Tucker, 1996). According to Seyersted, (cited in Kelly, 1994, p. 332), after critiquing â€Å"Athenaise,† he states that â€Å"In spite of its ‘happy ending,’ this tale is, on a deeper level, a protest against woman’s condition. Seyersted is undoubtedly referring to women’s struggle at that time for equality with men. Closer comparison of this story with Bernard’s play will bring to the surface many similarities of the uphill struggle women of this era endured and how it is depicted and evident in our literature. In Chopin’s â€Å"The Story of an Hour,† the main character, Mrs. Mallard receives word at home that her Husband had been killed in a train accident, she was distraught and crying, and when this subsided, she retires alone to a large armchair facing an open window in her room (Clugston, 2010b). This initial reaction to her loss seems fairly normal up to this point in the story, but then the Narrator describes what Mrs. Mallard sees, smells and hears from the open window, using symbolism and tone to describe a renewal in life, as described in Chopin’s â€Å"Story of an Hour,† (cited by Clugston, 2010b, para. 5): She could see in the open square before her house the tops of trees that were all aquiver with the new spring life. The delicious breath of rain was in the air. In the street below a peddler was crying his wares. The notes of a distant song which some one was singing reached her faintly, and countless sparrows were twittering in the eaves. As the story unfolds, Mrs. Mallard feels an emotion coming to her which she initially cannot identify, but ultimately does identify it; it is relief and a sense of a newfound freedom (Clugston, 2010). But why would she feel this way now unless she felt oppressed or abused when her husband was alive? A better description of what Mrs. Mallard had endured under her Husband’s rule and what she imagined the future to hold is stated in the story: â€Å"There would be no powerful will bending hers in that blind persistence with which men and women believe they have a right to impose a private will upon a fellow-creature† (cited in Clugston, 2010b, para. 14). The Author is speaking to the reader about this issue in 1894, a very bold and controversial statement for a time in which women were not expected to behave this way. Nearing the end of the story Mrs. Mallard finally accepts her newfound freedom and rejoices to herself â€Å"Free! Body and soul free! † (cited in Clugston, 2010b, para. 19), only to be persuaded out of her room by her sister and lead downstairs just as her husband comes through the front door, he was in fact not dead after all (Clugston, 2010). Mrs. Mallard died upon seeing her husband though the doctors said it was heart disease (earlier in the story it does mention she had a weak heart), (Clugston, 2010). One has to wonder though, did Mrs. Mallard die from heart disease or is this another symbol the Author uses to express Mrs. Mallard (or any oppressed woman) would rather die than give up her freedom and individuality? Tristan Bernard’s I’m Going! A Comedy in One Act is a play written by a man in France sixteen years after Kate Chopin’s â€Å"The Story of an Hour,† which is a short story written by a woman in the United States. Though there are differences in the Authors, origin, form, audience or reader, some compelling similarities exist; the time they were written (1915 1894, respectively), that both Authors incorporate issues of the time into their work, and perhaps most importantly, they both display the subservient, oppressive place which women are expected to take in the 19th and 20th centuries.

Thursday, November 14, 2019

Character Development In Sense And Sensibility :: essays research papers

Book Review 1 Development of Major Characters Sense and Sensibility   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  The first of Jane Austen’s published novels, Sense and Sensibility, portrays the life and loves of two very different sisters: Elinor and Marianne Dashwood. The contrast between the sister’s characters results in their attraction to vastly different men, sparking family and societal dramas that are played out around their contrasting romances. The younger sister, Marianne Dashwood, emerges as one of the novel’s major characters through her treatment and characterization of people, embodying of emotion, relationship with her mother and sisters, openness, and enthusiasm.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Marianne is in the jejune business of classifying people- especially men- as romantic or unromantic (Intro II). Marianne’s checklist mentality is observed by Elinor: â€Å"Well, Marianne†¦for one morning I think you have done pretty well†¦. You know what he thinks of Cowper and Scott; you are certain of his estimating their beauties as he ought, and you have every assurance of his admiring Pope no more than proper.† (Chapter 10) To site a specific incident, Marianne describes her opinion of Edward Ferrars- her sister’s interest- as being very amiable, yet he is not the kind of man she expects to seriously attach to her sister. She goes on to find, what in her opinion are flaws, that Edward Ferrars reads with little feeling or emotion, does not regard music highly, and that he enjoys Elinor’s drawing, yet cannot appreciate it, for he is not an artist (15). In a man, Marianne seeks a lover and a connoisseur, whose tastes coincide with her tastes. He must be open with feelings, read the same books, and be charmed by the same music (15). Marianne seeks a man with all of Edward’s virtues, and his person and manner must ornament his goodness with every possible charm (16). Marianne’s mother relates Marianne’s maturity beyond her years by reminding Marianne â€Å"Remember, my love, that you are not seventeen. It is yet too early in life to despair of such an happiness (16).† Marianne’s brand of free expression sometimes has little else to recommend it (Intro, I). What is true of Marianne’s classification system is true of her manners in general: In her refusal to place social decorum and propriety above her own impulses and desires, she is absolutely unbending (Intro, II). Marianne is also characterized as being very charming. For example, she believes her poetic effusions to be striking in themselves as well as accurate expressions of her inner life (Intro, VII).

Tuesday, November 12, 2019

Dinosaurs and Man May Have Co-Existed

Dinosaurs and Man may have Co-existed It has been a constant debate between creationists and evolutionists on how old the world is. Evolutionists believe that earth was created over 4. 5 billion years ago while, creationists believe in a young earth created only about 6,000 years old. With that debate is the argument on when the dinosaurs walked the earth. Evolutionism teaches that humans and dinosaurs lived millions of years apart from each other.What many people are not aware of is that there exists a considerable body of evidence that supports the Biblical account of humans and dinosaurs living at the same time and even interacting with each other. Some of this evidence suggests that this may still be happening today in certain parts of the world like the African Congo. (1) Dinosaurs are often portrayed as having lived in a time before man. However, the available evidence shows that man and dinosaur coexisted. Legends of dragons are found among most people groups.For example, ther e are the stories of Bel and the dragon, the Kulta of Australian aborigines, St. George and the dragon, and of course many Chinese legends. Often, the anatomical descriptions given are consistent, even though they come from separate continents and various times. (2) These depictions match what we know from the fossil evidence of certain dinosaurs. Thus, dinosaurs are known directly from their fossils, and indirectly from cave drawings, tapestries, textiles, figurines, carvings, bas reliefs, and many oral and written eyewitness accounts, most of which are quite old. 2) Pick up just about any book on dinosaurs, and it will say that dinosaurs lived from 230 million to 65 million years ago. That’s always stated as a fact, but how do they know? The ages of dinosaur fossils are determined by the layer of rock in which they are found. How do they know how old the rock layer is? It is usually the case that when layers of rock are piled up upon each other, the bottom one is the oldest , and the top one is the youngest, because the bottom one had to be there before the other ones formed on top of it.So, one can make a cross-sectional cut through a rock formation, examine the layers, and be reasonably confident that the lower layers formed before the upper layers (3). The questions are, â€Å"How long did it take for each layer to form? † and, â€Å"How much time elapsed between layers? † Traditionally, geologists have used the â€Å"geologic column† to answer these questions. Although the rapid formation of rock layers is an obvious fact, it makes evolutionists uncomfortable because it isn’t compatible with a neat uniformitarian explanation.If rock layers form rapidly in short periods of time, separated by longer time intervals of undetermined length, which makes it impossible to tell how long ago the rock layers were formed. Geologists are coming to the consensus that fossil-bearing rock layers were produced rapidly, and that there wer e unknown periods of time between the rock layers (3). Therefore, most of â€Å"geologic time† is represented by the rocks that aren’t there. Geologists have given traditional dates to sedimentary rock layers.They do that based upon the kind of fossils found in the rocks, and the evolutionary assumptions of the stages through which life evolved, and how long it took to evolve through each stage. The fossils in a sedimentary rock layer tell you what kinds of critters were living in that area at the time they were buried by a flood, landslide, or sandstorm (3). The dating and correlation of the geologic column is based on the assumption that all the wildlife living all over the world is the same at any given time.Therefore, floods, landslides, and sandstorms that occur in North America, South America, Africa, Europe, and Asia, will all bury the same kind of critter in any given year. (3) Believe it or not, dinosaur footprints, and the footprints of man, are found in the same strata, in the very same formation, in some cases only 18 inches apart, at a geological dig in Glen Rose, Texas, called the Paluxy River Bed. The ancient footprints of â€Å"man† at the site are found to be evenly spaced, and go under overhanging shale formations, continuing under the formations, and have been excavated. 4) Dinosaurs were said to have lived 250 million to 65 million years ago because their bones are found in rocks that are said to be Triassic, Jurassic, or Cretaceous. Rocks are classified as Triassic, Jurassic, or Cretaceous because they contain fossils that evolutionists presume were alive all over the Earth only during those periods of time. If you found a rock with a dinosaur bone in it, you would not be able to convince an evolutionary geologist that it was anything other than a Triassic, Jurassic, or Cretaceous rock.If radioisotope dating indicated the rock was less than 65 million years old, or more than 250 million year old, the evolutionist would flatly reject the radioisotope date. It is a fundamental article of faith that dinosaurs lived 250 to 65 million years ago. (3) New evidence from the Paluxy river bed in Glen Rose, Texas, as well as from South America, Mexico, and California, demonstrates beyond any doubt that dinosaurs and mankind co-existed, and walked the planet earth at the very same time — during the age of man.Believe it or not, dinosaur footprints, and the footprints of man, are found in the same strata, in the very same formation, in some cases only 18 inches apart, at a geological dig in Glen Rose, Texas, called the Paluxy River Bed. The ancient footprints of â€Å"man† at the site are found to be evenly spaced, and go under overhanging shale formations, continuing under the formations, and have been excavated (4). How is it possible that human footprints found in Mexico, Arizona, Texas, Illinois, New Mexico, Kentucky, and other states, are in rocks supposedly 250,000,000 years old† (4) Winkie Pratney in  Creation or Evolution?Part III, the Fossil Record: discusses the mysterious dinosaur tracks and human footprints found close together at the Paluxy River Bed: â€Å"Though the dino tracks (in the Paluxy River Bed in Glen Rose, Texas, for instance) are real, perhaps the human prints were later ‘clever carvings' by Indians. Recent research, however, has shown that they continue under shale bulldozed away, and paleontologists like Dr. Camp of the University of California and Dr. G. Wescott of Ypsilanti, Michigan, have pronounced them genuine.Scores of other similar finds have come in: human skulls in the Pliocene strata; pollen and anthropods in Pre-Cambrian layers; even pictographs of a dinosaur among other animals on ancient canyon walls, which would knock some 70 million years out of the geologic column† (Acts, p. 15, June 1996). (4) Since dinosaurs supposedly died out 65 million years ago, it is not possible that anyone in historic times has ever seen a living dinosaur. But what if people have seen living dinosaurs? Wouldn’t that completely refute the assumptions upon which the dating of the geologic column rests?For that reason, it is worth evaluating the evidence that man and dinosaurs might have lived together. If dinosaurs and man lived together, don’t you think they would be mentioned in ancient books? Certainly they would. They would not be called â€Å"dinosaurs† because that word wasn’t coined until 1841. If they were mentioned, you would expect them to be called something else, but would expect their descriptions to match dinosaurs (3). You would expect to read things like this, written by Philostratus (200 – 230 AD) wrote in the  Life of Apollonius of Tyana, Northern â€Å"India is girt with dragons of enormous size; not only are the arshes full of them but the mountains as well and not a single ridge is without one. †¦ The dragons of the foothills have crests, of moderate height when young but they grow with them and extend to a great height when they reach full size. † The bodies of the plains dragons are sometimes found with elephants, a great reward for hunters. Their tusks resemble those of swine, but more twisted and sharp. â€Å"They say that in the skulls of the mountain dragons are stored stones of flowery colors that flash out all kinds of hues. † They tell us that â€Å"a great many dragons' skulls are enshrined† in the center of the great city of Paraka (Peshawar? close by the mountain. (3)For over 2 hundred years there have been reports of a living dinosaur in Africa. This creature, which the natives call â€Å"Mokele-Mbembe† is believed to be a sauropod type of dinosaur (5). Sauropod means â€Å"Lizard-Footed† dinosaur. Sauropods are four-legged, herbivorous dinosaurs. These incidents were reported long before the word â€Å"dinosaur† was coined, and long before anyone (in this century) knew they existed. If Mokele-Mbembe is a living dinosaur, then it makes the claim of total dinosaur extinction unfounded.The Congolese people are very familiar with the aquatic dinosaur living in the Likoula swamp region. They call this Apatosaurus-like creature â€Å"Mokele-Mbembe† which means:  Ã¢â‚¬Å"one who stops the flow of rivers† (5). From the size of this awesome beast this name is sure fitting! They believe this animal  (which they greatly fear)  is sacred. This belief is due to the illness and death of many in the pygmy tribe after one was killed with a spear and eaten by the people. Of course, the deaths and illness were probably more likely due to spoilage of its meat.An animal this large could have been eaten for several weeks. (5) â€Å"Persistent reports of strange creatures in remote, swampy jungles of western Africa have led two scientists to believe that dinosaurs still may walk the Earth. Both historical reports from Westerners and firsthand accounts fr om natives indicate dinosaur-like creatures may exist today in a virtually unexplored jungle in the People’s Republic of the Congo, the researchers said yesterday. Dr. Roy Mackal, a research associate at the University of Chicago, said he believes the animals may be elephant-sized dinosaurs (5). In an article in Science magazine, published by the American Association for the Advancement of Science, the researchers say natives call the creature ‘Mokele-Mbembe. ‘ â€Å"The researchers say they believe it actually may be a dinosaur that looks like a smaller version of the brontosaurus, a giant plant-eater that died out 70 million years ago. Natives shown pictures of many kinds of animals picked illustrations of the brontosaurus as most closely resembling the creatures they say they saw, Mackal said. †Ã‚   Source: Warren E. Leary â€Å"Dinosaurs May Inhabit Remote Jungle. † San Diego Union Tribune, Oct 18, 1980 (Washington date Line). as quoted in  "That their words may be used against them† by Henry Morris, pg. 258) Roy Mackal, an American Biochemist (and evolutionist) has headed several expeditions since 1980 to the Likouala swamp. Mackal has collected numerous eyewitness accounts from the Congo natives. Many live in different locations, yet their descriptions of the creature are the same despite lack of communication with each other. Descriptions of the dinosaurs physical appearance and behavioral traits are consistent with each other. (5)| â€Å"I am not at all convinced it has been proven that the dinosaurs became extinct prior to the advent of man.I believe there is much evidence, ancient and modern, to indicate that dinosaurs and human kind existed on earth contemporaneously, and that human beings, while they probably lived in different regions than dinosaurs for the most part, did on many occasions encounter the sometimes huge and fearsome creatures. The memories of these encounters were so vivid and deep that t hey were passed down in a multitude of cultures as legends, painted on cave walls, represented in pottery, and written of in literature† (Quote from Francis Schaeffer (a well known Christian Historian) .Though most are now gone, I believe that some small species of dinosaurs may still alive today in remote parts of the world. | Works cited page 1. Swift, Dennis. â€Å"More Evidence That Dinosaurs and Man Co-existed ! †Ã‚  Angelfire: Welcome to Angelfire. 2011. Web. 13 Apr. 2011. . 2. â€Å"Men and Dinosaurs Coexisted. †Ã‚  Www. icr. org. Web. 13 Apr. 2011. . 3. Jones, Do-While. â€Å"The Age of Dinosaurs. †Ã‚  Ridgecrest, California – Your Community Portal. June 2004. Web. 13 Apr. 2011. lt;http://www. ridgecrest. ca. us/~do_while/sage/v8i9f. htm>. 4. Keyser, John D. â€Å"Dinosaurs and Man? †Ã‚  Hope of Israel Ministries. Web. 13 Apr. 2011. . 5. â€Å"Mokele-Mbembe Search Living Dinosaurs Dinosaur Embryos Uncovered. †Ã‚  Angelfire: Wel come to Angelfire. Web. 13 Apr. 2011. . 6. Warren E. Leary â€Å"Dinosaurs May Inhabit Remote Jungle. † San Diego Union Tribune, Oct 18, 1980 (Washington date Line) Griffin Bearicks Spring semester 2011 April 13, 2011 Geology 1304 Roger Sigler

Sunday, November 10, 2019

Bullying and the effects on the individuals Essay

Abstract The purpose of this paper is to explain what is bullying and the consequences of bullying. Bullying is where the bullier intentially causes physical harm or emotional stress to the victim. Bullies are angry and aggressive and dominate their victims and choose their targets by weakness and vulnerability and the victim is non dominant and usually does not fight back. There are severe warning signs that this is not a normal behavior and usually starts as a child and can still be a behavior done in adulthood. There are four different types of bullying and several descriptive behaviors. Bullying can lead to severe self-esteem issues. Aggressive behavior, dominant individual who abuses power by threating less dominant individual. Behavior is repeated or has potential to become repetitive over time. Bullying includes making threats spreading rumors, attacking someone or seclusion. This can be in person or anonymously by being a cyber-bully. This is important because bullying or being bullied appear to indicate that something is wrong and children who experience bullying either as aggressor or a victim need help. Bullying start as a child and without help it can grow into a big issue to deal with as an adult. Types There are three most common types of bullying and numerous tactics used when targeting their victims. Bullies intend to harm their victims with power imbalance. Power imbalance is crucial for the bully because their victim  cannot defend themselves. Power difference can be age, size, or strength. The victim as a result can feel weak, small, vulnerable, scared and dumb. There is typically more than one time that the bully will attack there same victim. Weather it is the same act or different behaviors on the victim. The third aspect on bully behaviors is the intentions to cause harm another person. The bully harasses people on purpose. Their behavior is not a â€Å"joke† or accident. The victim feels embarrassed, ashamed, angry, or scared. There are different forms of bullying; physical, verbal, cyber and relational aggression. Physical involves hitting, kicking, pushing, tripping, stealing or breaking property. Verbal abuse hurts the victim emotionally with words. Name calling, threating, yelling, intimidation and laughing. Relational uses other people to hurt their victims. This is more hurtful to some people because their friends are talking behind their back. The bully spreads rumors and gossip around. The last form is cyberbullying which is done with improved technology. This can be over the internet, email, text or social media. The bully can interact relational and verbal forms. Name calling, insults and lies or threats can lead to physical harm to the victim. This can happen 24/7 and anonymously. So it is harder to find out who is the bully. There are many influences that the bully has and that is the reason why the bully has certain behaviors. Gender, orientation, environment, family problems, race or developmental problems. The bully usually has anger issues and experiences some type of abuse. The person takes out their feelings on someone who can or will not fight back. The bully may be physically and verbally abused by parents or older siblings. So when they are around someone who is not a threat they tend to do the same abuse to the victim to feel superior and worthy. The parents may have substance abuse, emotional issues, low self-esteem, single parent household and many other reasons. The family is not connected and bad communication. Lack of rules may also play a role. The victims have low self-esteem because they feel powerless. They listen and believe what is said to them and about them. They may feel helpless,  hopeless hurt non worthy and have negative outcomes, anxiety and depression. These can lead to substance abuse, drinking and lack of motivation, eating disorders and increase risk of suicide. These are main of bullying. Conclusion In conclusion bullying is a nationwide problem and it has major problems that affect another human being. This usually starts as a child and never ends without proper treatment. There is a behavior problem that is not normal to intentially cause harm to another person. there are many factors that influence the bully behavior. The victim as a result has low self-esteem. Depression and anxiety. The dominant and less dominant parties need and is recommended to get counseling to reduce long term constiquences. The improved bullying is done with updated technology and can remain unknown. References Kimble, D. and Colman, M (1995): Biological aspects of behavior, Longman Publishers, available at http://www.le.ac.uk/psychology/amc/ Kuykendrat, S. (2012) Ph D.Bullying Santa Barbra: ABC-clio. Zastrow, C. H.& Kirst-ashmand K.K. (2010) Understanding human behavior and the social environment. (8th ed ) Belmonth, CA brooks/cole http://www.stopbullying.gov/what-is-bullying/rel

Thursday, November 7, 2019

The International Strategy of TESCO PLC The WritePass Journal

The International Strategy of TESCO PLC Abstract The International Strategy of TESCO PLC ). This is particularly true when some resources are worth more to an organisation owing to the special linkages between the firm and such resources. When the firms have such resources, they are more likely to opt for high control strategies for instance wholly owned subsidiaries. This decision is mostly made with the assumption that such linkages will be influential in enhancing the relative position of the firm in the new foreign market. In addition to the highlighted theories, the integrative theoretical perspective on foreign market entry holds that the firm’s decision to enter into a foreign market and its choice of entry are functions of multiple factors that arise from location and ownership-specific advantages (Alexander Doherty 2009). Although these theories differ in many important aspects they allow for broad generalisations on the factors that influence an organisation to enter into a foreign market and the entry strategy. The next section analyses the internation al strategy of Tesco Plc based on the integrative framework. Tesco Plc International Strategy The company enters foreign markets mainly through joint ventures with local firms, acquisitions and Greenfield investments (Mosley Barrow 2013). The company aims at being the market leader in the foreign country it enters within a period of five years. It has registered huge successes in Asia and most of the European markets. However, the situation in America has been different because the company has struggled to gain market control (Harrison 2013). The success of Tesco Plc in the international market has been aided by its sensitivity to the local culture of the host countries and the market environment. This has mainly been done through partnerships, mergers and acquisitions which have made it easier for the company to offer the local markets with what they want by serving their unique needs. This has been particularly helpful in high context cultures like in the Asian market. The global expansion and diversification of Tesco Plc are based on the long-term desire for the company to develop sustainable growth and development. Morschett (2011) claims that one of the main reasons why the company decided to pursue the international market was that the local UK market had reached saturation and maturity making it very difficult to grow without exploiting overseas opportunities. This was therefore the only viable solution for the company if it was to remain relevant for the economy in the long run. The main factors influencing the choice of entry for Tesco Plc are the different threats that it may encounter in the international markets.   Some of the common threats are industrial structures and cultural factors. Nonetheless, the primary influencers of the choice of entry for the company are based on cultural factors (Harrison 2013). Tesco Plc has consistently preferred to use international joint ventures as an entry strategy in the Asian market. This is partly because these countries have high context cultures that require organisations to build interpersonal relationships (Alexander Doherty 2009). In these cultures, relationship networks among business associates, colleagues and even clients tend to be close and personal. As a consequence, it is important for firms to build trust and relationships during business interactions. The importance of these relationships arises from the fact that they have high uncertainty avoidance levels; therefore relationships and trust reduce the level of uncertainties, risks and ambiguities (McLoughlin Aaker 2010). For instance in South Korea, the international joint venture with Samsung helped the company establish contacts with the local suppliers and manufacturers. This was very important in penetrating the market in South Korea because the customers there often shop freque ntly as they prefer fresh and quality products like vegetables and meat which is different from the customers in the UK who like piling stock. Based on the internalisation theory, Tesco Plc gained advantage by internalising the market in South Korea. This was done through building local networks to ensure that the company sales remain as high as possible. Therefore it employed all the employees of Samsung to ensure that the normal operations were not interfered with. The local managers were also given the authority to make decisions on behalf of the company because of their experience with the local market. Additionally, this was part of the company’s plan to deal with the challenges associated with the competitive environment by positioning itself using localisation and decentralisation while the other players in the industry pursue globalisation strategies (Hitt et al 2008). According to the bargaining theory, localisation and decentralisation gives the company a local imag e thus making it highly responsive to the tastes and lifestyles of the local consumers. This gave Tesco Plc a competitive advantage in the South Korean market compared to the other foreign firms like Wal-Mart and Carrefour. The entry strategies of Tesco Plc have also been shaped by cultural factors like psychic distance. Psychic distance refers to the extent to which a firm is uncertain on the nature of the foreign market (Thain Bradley 2012). Acquisitions and international joint ventures with the local businesses in the high context cultures are important in reducing risks, adaptation costs, psychic distance and cultural barriers. The acquisition of the local distribution channels gave the company a huge advantage over the other multinationals like Wal-Mart which were struggling because the Korean market is characterised by a strong nationalist outlook. The company pursued the same strategies in Thailand and China and this enabled it to penetrate the market with ease compared to other multinational companies. Therefore international joint ventures and acquisitions enabled Tesco Plc. to succeed in markets where Carrefour and Wal-Mart had failed eventually being forced to exit the market in 2006 (Mosley Barrow, 2013). In Thailand for instance, after the acquisition of Lotus, Tesco Plc has managed to grow and is currently the market leader as it has pumped huge investments into organic management. The company also diversified its operations in Thailand to include smaller express stores so as to reach more customers. Tesco Plc has made huge successes whenever it chose to enter foreign markets through strategic alliances and acquisitions; however Greenfield entries have proved to be costly and inappropriate. Although Greenfield entries provide the company with full control and ownership over its operations, it has proved to be unsuitable because of the dismal results. Despite the extensive research that the company made prior to joining the US market, its failure there demonstrates that the research was either flawed or inadequate (Krafft Mantrala 2010). Additionally, its operations in the US were an attempt to duplicate its operations in the UK because it tried to standardise instead of localising them. Part of the problem with the market research was that it only concentrated on the buying behaviour of the Americans and ignored other important variables like shopping experience, value, aesthetics, store atmosphere and quality. This was a great mistake because corrective investments should have been made in response to these marketing aspects (Morschett 2011). For instance the Tescosells pre-packaged fruits was a big mistake because Americans prefer selecting their own fresh fruits. Tesco failed to appreciate the US customer base because it underestimated it. This is the reason why the company handled its operations in the US as an extension of the UK market. The company was attracted to the US market by the booming economy and the ever rising property value (Ryans 2013). These are the factors that prompted it to go for Greenfield investments in US. This was a viable option; however the company failed to account for the deeper financial dynamics that could have saved it from the 2009 financial crisis. In addition to this, the choice of Tesco Plc to enter the US market through Greenfield investments was partly influenced by managerial short termism and egoism.   As a consequence, several mistakes can be pointed out from its entry and post entry strategies. The first mistake that the company made at the point of entry is that it increased its exit barriers by aggressively increasing more stores despite the fact that it was making huge losses. Secondly, the company may have been driven by managerial subjective interest for power emanating from the previous international successes. This led to overconfidence therefore blurring the vision of the managers to see that they were driving the company in the wrong direction (Morschett 2011). However, the biggest mistakes that Tesco Plc made was that it failed to plan and strategize for post entry and this led to flaws in its quest to compete in the home market of the world’s largest retailer. As a result the company made huge loses in the US and was eventually forced to exit without ever recording any profits. In Taiwan, the situation was the same as that of the US; Tesco entered the market in 2000 without partnering with the local companies. The company was able to establish six hypermar kets through organic growth. However, just like in the US the Taiwanese retail market was hugely dominated by Carrefour which had the advantage of having all the strategic positions. Just like in the US, the company was unable to attain the market scale necessary for building central distribution centres. Therefore in 2005, it was forced to exit the market through a divestment deal with Carrefour. Recommendations Based on the findings of this study, the following recommendations can be made for Tesco Plc for it to succeed in its quest to establish its presence in other international markets. First off, the company should abandon Greenfield investment strategies because they have proved to be very costly in the past. The company struggled in the US and Taiwan and was eventually forced to exit because lack of local partners made it very difficult for it to succeed in markets that are dominated by the two retail giants. The company should have strategies that fit into the culture of the target market like it did in South Korea. The retail industry is very sensitive because it represents the daily necessities of the consumers and as such must be responsive to their cultural habits. For a multinational company to succeed in a foreign market it must have strategies that are responsive to the needs and culture of the local people. Therefore Tesco Plc. should continue incorporating localisation strat egies and respond to the culture of the local markets. It should be more innovative and proactive in its marketing strategies in the international markets. For instance the company should enhance its market intelligence and customer database in order to be able to customise service delivery to the customers. References   Alexander, N., Doherty, A. M. (2009).  International retailing. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Cunningham, J., Harney, B. (2012).  Strategy strategists. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Harrison, A. L. (2013).  Business environment in a global context. Oxford: Oxford university press. Hensmans, M., Johnson, G., Yip, G. S. (2013).  Strategic transformation: Changing while winning. Houndmills, Basingstoke, Hampshire: Palgrave Macmillan. Hitt, M. A., Ireland, R. D., Hoskisson, R. E. (2008).  Strategic management: Competitiveness and globalization. Mason, Ohio: South-Western. Krafft, M., Mantrala, M. K. (2010).  Retailing in the 21st century: Current and future trends. Heidelberg: Springer. McLoughlin, D., Aaker, D. A. (2010).  Strategic market management: Global perspectives. Hoboken, N.J: Wiley. Morschett, D. (2011).  European retail research: Volume 25, Issue I. Wiesbaden: Gabler Verlag. Mosley, R., Barrow, S. (2013).  The employer brand: Bringing the best of brand management to people at work. Hoboken, N.J: Wiley. Ryans, A. (2013).  Beating low cost competition: How premium brands can respond to cut-price rivals. Hoboken, N.J: Wiley. Seth, A., Randall, G. (2011).  The grocers: The rise and rise of the supermarket chains. London: Kogan Page. Sternquist, B., Witter, G. (2011).  Retail strategic international expansion (SIRE ²) theory and cases. Haslett, MI: BSC Publisher. Thain, G., Bradley, J. (2012).  Store wars: The worldwide battle for mindspace and shelfspace, online and in-store. Chichester, West Sussex: John Wiley Sons.

Tuesday, November 5, 2019

The Main Classifications of Criminal Offenses

The Main Classifications of Criminal Offenses In the United States, there are three primary classifications of criminal offenses - felonies, misdemeanors, and infractions. Each classification is distinguished from each other by the seriousness of the offense and the amount of punishment for which someone convicted of the crime can receive. What Is a Criminal Offense? Criminal offenses are further classified as property crimes or personal crimes. Elected officials on the federal, state, and local levels pass laws that establish which behavior constitutes a crime and what the punishment will be for someone who is found guilty of those crimes. What Is a Felony? Felonies are the most serious classification of crimes, punishable by incarceration of more than a year in prison and in some cases, life in prison without parole or capital punishment. Both property crimes and person crimes can be felonies. Murder, rape, and kidnapping are felony crimes. Armed robbery and grand theft can also be felonies. Not only can the person who committed the crime be charged with a felony, so can anyone who aided or abetted the felon before or during the crime and anyone who became accessories to the crime after it was committed, such as those who help the felon avoid capture. Most states have different classifications of felonies, with increasing penalties for the most serious crimes. Each class of felony crimes has minimum and maximum sentencing guidelines. Crimes that are classified as felonies include: Aggravated AssaultAnimal CrueltyArsonDrug DistributionElder AbuseFelony AssaultGrand TheftKidnappingManslaughterManufacturing of drugsMurderRapeTax EvasionTreason Most states also classify felonies by capital felony, followed by first through fourth degree, depending on the severity. Although each state varies when determining the degree of a felony, most states with capital felony define it as a crime, such as murder, that qualifies for the death penalty or life without parole. Common first-degree felonies include arson, rape, murder, treason, and kidnapping; Second-degree felonies can include arson, manslaughter, drug manufacturing or distribution, child pornography, and child molestation. Third and fourth-degree felonies can include pornography, involuntary manslaughter, burglary, larceny, driving under the influence, and assault and battery. Prison Sentences for Felonies Each state determines the prison sentence handed down for felony crimes based on guidelines determined by the degree of the crime. Class A is usually used to classify the most serious felonies, such as first-degree murder, rape, involuntary servitude of a minor, kidnapping in the first degree, or other crimes that are considered to be heinous. Some Class A felonies carry the toughest penalties, such as the death penalty. Each state has its own set of classifications of criminal laws. A Class B felony is a classification of crimes that are severe, yet not the most serious of crimes. Because a Class B felony is a felony, it carries tough penalties, such as a lengthy prison sentence and extreme fines. Here is an example of Texas and then Floridas felony sentencing guidelines. Texas Sentencing: Capital Felony:  Death or life without parole.First-Degree Felony: Five to 99 years  incarceration  and up to a $10,000 fine.Second-Degree Felony:  Two to 20 years incarceration and up to a $10,000 fine.Third-Degree Felony:  Two to 10 years  incarceration  and up to a $10,000 fine. Florida Maximum Sentencing: Life Felony: Up to life in prison  incarceration  and up to a $15,000 fine.First-Degree Felony: Up to 30 years  incarceration  and up to a $10,000 fine.Second-Degree Felony: Up to 15 years  incarceration  and up to a $10,000 fine.Third-Degree Felony: Up to five years  incarceration  and up to a $5,000 fine. What Is a Misdemeanor? Misdemeanors are crimes that do not rise to the severity of a felony. They are lesser crimes for which the maximum sentence is 12 months or less in jail. The distinction between misdemeanors and felonies lies within the seriousness of the crime. Aggravated assault (beating someone with a baseball bat, for example) is a felony, while simple battery (slapping someone in the face) is a misdemeanor. But some crimes that are usually treated as misdemeanors in the courts can rise to the level of a felony under certain circumstances. For example, in some states, possession of less than an ounce of marijuana is a misdemeanor, but possession of more than an ounce is considered possession with intent to distribute and is treated as a felony. Likewise, an arrest for driving under the influence is usually a misdemeanor, but if anyone was hurt or killed or if it is not the drivers first DUI offense, the charge can become a felony. What Is an Infraction? Infractions are crimes for which jail time is usually not a possible sentence. Sometimes known as petty crimes, infractions are often punishable by fines, which can be paid without even going to court. Most infractions are local laws or ordinances passed as a deterrence to dangerous or nuisance behavior, such as setting speed limits in school zones, no parking zones, traffic laws, or anti-noise ordinances. Infractions can also include operating a business without the proper license or improperly disposing of trash. Under some circumstances, an infraction can rise to the level of a more serious crime. Running a stop sign might be a minor infraction, but not stopping for the sign and causing damage or injury is a more serious offense. Capital Crimes Capital crimes are those which are punishable by death. They are, of course, felonies. The difference between other classes of felonies and capital felonies is the fact that those accused of capital crimes can pay the ultimate penalty, the loss of their life.

Sunday, November 3, 2019

Personal Media Inventory Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words

Personal Media Inventory - Essay Example As the research declares television images are reproduced on screens which can either be colored or limited to black and white. Televisions have the ability to receive signals and reproduce them on screens. With technology, it is possible to have televisions which can stream media content without relying on the analogue signals used in the past. News and occurrences across the country and beyond are relayed through the television. One can also use a television to watch movies which are informative and entertaining. According to the report findings a newspaper is a printed publication which contains news, advertisements and other information that the producers considers important to reach the readers. Newspapers are better sources of information compared to television since one can keep the newspaper as a reference to a certain piece of information. They are both informative and entertaining. Magazines are closely related to newspapers. However, they are periodical publications which contains articles from various individuals on different topics. Whereas newspapers cover the contemporary issues in the society, magazines are more specific and dwell on a smaller niche of information. They cover a particular topic or area of interest. The internet is a global communication network that allows computers, phones, and other devices to communicate, connect and exchange information. It has taken over the entertainment and information industry considering that most people own cellular phones which can ac cess it.