Saturday, August 31, 2019

Uncle Bob

I am so excited to go on vacation in Miami, Florida! Best of all, my Uncle Bob is coming with me! Uncle Bob lives in California and is also excited to go on vacation because he has never been out of the state before. Uncle Bob and I were having a great time on our vacation visiting the beautiful beaches and area attractions. In the middle of our vacation, Uncle Bob and I were heading back to the condo we rented when we got pulled over by the Miami Police. Uncle Bob spoke with the officer for a while then was arrested! I couldn’t understand why he was arrested; he was just speeding! Uncle Bob and I had a drink when we at the beach, but that was two hours prior to us leaving so there was no way he was drunk! Uncle Bob had been in some trouble before, but that was in California. Was it possible that his license wasn’t valid? Maybe, but how did a Miami, Florida police officer know enough about Uncle Bob to arrest him? With Uncle Bob’s situation, I have started doing some research of my own; technology has dramatically changed how law enforcement collects, stores, and retrieves information. Law Enforcement personnel are able to easily find information about individuals nationwide. The Miami, Florida Police Department has a fully integrated police records management system which allows law enforcement officers to gather information on an individual’s criminal, probation, court, vehicle, and prison records, as well as local and other agency records. Therefore, the officer who stopped Uncle Bob for speeding was able to access his previous records from the state of California through the use of his mobile office; the mobile radio system, and mobile data computer in his patrol vehicle (Foster, 2005). A Law Enforcement Officer has the ability to access information about an individual by use of their driver’s license or state identification number, or even their name and date of birth. When Uncle Bob and I were pulled over, the officer ran his driver’s license number to check for validation and warrants. If Uncle Bob’s previous charges left him with a suspended license in California, then that would explain why he was arrested here in Florida. Likewise, if Uncle Bob didn’t take care of his responsibilities for the charges in California, he may have a warrant which would also explain his arrest in Florida. However, maybe Uncle Bob didn’t have a suspended license or any warrants issued from California; why did he get arrested then? I know we weren’t in a stolen car because we rented it from the airport when we arrived in Miami. Maybe there was a crime that took place in this area, and a witness gave Law Enforcement a description of the suspect that is similar to Uncle Bob or the rental car? If that’s the case, then the arresting officer must have questioned him of our activities that day to see if we were in the area of which the crime took place. Uncle Bob may have been suspected of being the perpetrator, and was taken to the police department for further questioning. It is also possible that Uncle Bob actually did commit a crime while here in Miami, and that was why he was speeding; to try and get away. However, Uncle Bob has been with me the whole time so I know he didn’t commit a crime here! Perhaps Uncle Bob is still on probation in California, and not allowed to leave the state; if that is so, then the arresting officer could have accessed Uncle Bob’s probation records, contacted his probation officer, and arrested him on a probation violation of leaving the state of California. Also, if he is on probation, the probation officer may have found out that he left California and put out a warrant for his arrest; explaining why he was arrested here in Miami. My last possible thought regarding Uncle Bob’s arrest would be a clerical data entry error. The last time Uncle Bob was arrested; he was incarcerated and served his time. However, the individual entering case information may have incorrectly input his data or input another person’s data with a similar name, under his name, causing Uncle Bob to be wanted in connection with another crime. References Foster, R. E. (2005). Police technology (1st ed. ). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson/ Prentice Hall. Uncle Bob I am so excited to go on vacation in Miami, Florida! Best of all, my Uncle Bob is coming with me! Uncle Bob lives in California and is also excited to go on vacation because he has never been out of the state before. Uncle Bob and I were having a great time on our vacation visiting the beautiful beaches and area attractions. In the middle of our vacation, Uncle Bob and I were heading back to the condo we rented when we got pulled over by the Miami Police. Uncle Bob spoke with the officer for a while then was arrested! I couldn’t understand why he was arrested; he was just speeding! Uncle Bob and I had a drink when we at the beach, but that was two hours prior to us leaving so there was no way he was drunk! Uncle Bob had been in some trouble before, but that was in California. Was it possible that his license wasn’t valid? Maybe, but how did a Miami, Florida police officer know enough about Uncle Bob to arrest him? With Uncle Bob’s situation, I have started doing some research of my own; technology has dramatically changed how law enforcement collects, stores, and retrieves information. Law Enforcement personnel are able to easily find information about individuals nationwide. The Miami, Florida Police Department has a fully integrated police records management system which allows law enforcement officers to gather information on an individual’s criminal, probation, court, vehicle, and prison records, as well as local and other agency records. Therefore, the officer who stopped Uncle Bob for speeding was able to access his previous records from the state of California through the use of his mobile office; the mobile radio system, and mobile data computer in his patrol vehicle (Foster, 2005). A Law Enforcement Officer has the ability to access information about an individual by use of their driver’s license or state identification number, or even their name and date of birth. When Uncle Bob and I were pulled over, the officer ran his driver’s license number to check for validation and warrants. If Uncle Bob’s previous charges left him with a suspended license in California, then that would explain why he was arrested here in Florida. Likewise, if Uncle Bob didn’t take care of his responsibilities for the charges in California, he may have a warrant which would also explain his arrest in Florida. However, maybe Uncle Bob didn’t have a suspended license or any warrants issued from California; why did he get arrested then? I know we weren’t in a stolen car because we rented it from the airport when we arrived in Miami. Maybe there was a crime that took place in this area, and a witness gave Law Enforcement a description of the suspect that is similar to Uncle Bob or the rental car? If that’s the case, then the arresting officer must have questioned him of our activities that day to see if we were in the area of which the crime took place. Uncle Bob may have been suspected of being the perpetrator, and was taken to the police department for further questioning. It is also possible that Uncle Bob actually did commit a crime while here in Miami, and that was why he was speeding; to try and get away. However, Uncle Bob has been with me the whole time so I know he didn’t commit a crime here! Perhaps Uncle Bob is still on probation in California, and not allowed to leave the state; if that is so, then the arresting officer could have accessed Uncle Bob’s probation records, contacted his probation officer, and arrested him on a probation violation of leaving the state of California. Also, if he is on probation, the probation officer may have found out that he left California and put out a warrant for his arrest; explaining why he was arrested here in Miami. My last possible thought regarding Uncle Bob’s arrest would be a clerical data entry error. The last time Uncle Bob was arrested; he was incarcerated and served his time. However, the individual entering case information may have incorrectly input his data or input another person’s data with a similar name, under his name, causing Uncle Bob to be wanted in connection with another crime. References Foster, R. E. (2005). Police technology (1st ed. ). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson/ Prentice Hall.

Friday, August 30, 2019

Technicalities of Dance

Tonya Sok English 1304 Dr. Beaven 27 March 2013 Technicalities of Dance Dance is a universal language that involves exaggerated movements of the arms, legs, and body. With the sound of music, dance is more than just a form of expression. It is a moving portrait embraced by the curtain frame. It is a masterpiece assembled by artfully maneuvered strokes. The strokes don’t belong to that of the painter, but rather the educator who supervised the integration of music and dance. There it hangs on a stage like any other painting on a wall; a moving portrait.However, the many stereotypes formed among the dancers have altered the way some view the performances of dance. Especially in the modern and ballet genres, while the dancers pour their heart and soul into the movements, why does the audiences’ perspective change with a shift from female to male leads? What if the movements just did not meet our standards of liking or fit our taste? Do we enjoy the performance as a whole i f there is one odd flaw standing out? I explore the reasons as to why society judges the attributes of dance in such cases as mixed genders, their styles, and the unwillingness to accept it as a sport.The issues pertaining to gender should not matter in art. Men and women are free to express thoughts and ideas through paintings, and therefore both should be equally free to express themselves through dancing. In Negotiating the Gay Male Stereotype, Katherine M. Polasek believes cultures construct â€Å"gender, the body, and movement, restricting both males and females from using and exploring their bodies in ways not deemed gender-appropriate† (Page # and fix how the quote flows with sentence). Some people ridicule males in ballet for wearing tights because it is too â€Å"feminine†.On the other hand, when comparing ballet to wrestling, swimming, or football the use of tight pants or Speedos are considered as an attire requirement. Tights enable one to possess ease of m ovement and less drag friction. However, this does not correspond with sexual stereotypes targeting ballet because many other sports make use of similar tight-fit clothing. The gay stereotype in dance originates from the fact that men who take part in the form of art do not often present competition with other men in fields of sturdy speed and strength.Unlike sports such as basketball, football, soccer, or wrestling, men in ballet are not often looked upon as masculine for their light leaps and smooth swaying movements. Another reason why gay stereotypes exist within ballet would be because gay men actually do ballet alongside women, and ballet still remains more popular among women than men during the 21st century. Due to the amount of stereotypical comments made about the male dancers, â€Å"claims for athleticism and technique have been used to downplay the perceived risk and denigration of being identified as homosexual, as well as to justify dancers’ virility and value. Do I need to include this? ->Male dancers in school may use playing sports to camouflage homosexuality† (Hanna 223). Even though a male dancer is not gay, observers may sometimes perceive otherwise through movement analysis. For this reason, Polasek’s literature (

Thursday, August 29, 2019

Person and Service Users Essay

Answer 1 As a trainer of many subjects, I must ensure that my own knowledge of the various legislation and regulatory requirements and codes of practice are current and up to date, which are often subject to change, in order that the information relayed to the candidates is correct. There are several key pieces of legislation that are paramount to the subjects I teach, Health and Safety at Work Act 1974 determines that I have a duty of care to each candidate / assessors who attend any course I deliver. To comply with this a risk assessment of the training facilities is undertaken and reviewed upon every course run. In order to ensure the safety and welfare of the attendees a health and safety talk is conveyed making sure that all are aware of any potential hazards, fire evacuation procedures etc. Each attendee is made aware that they have a responsibility to ensure the safety of themselves and of those around them. Lifting Operations and Lifting Equipment Regulations 1998 (LOLER) –This regulation dictates that lifting equipment used for lifting people is subject to a six monthly inspection by a competent person. Each hoist used to safely move people has a working emergency release to ensure that should the hoist fail the person is not stuck in mid air and is safely lowered to the floor within a short time. In order to ensure that candidates are physically able and have no medical issues a Health Declaration form is completed and signed by all attending the courses. Should any medical issues arise then a short talk to the candidate is conducted ascertaining there capabilities. Answer 2 I teach a variety of subjects and in a majority of the courses there is often mixed levels of knowledge and experience of the subject being taught. In order to achieve this information I introduce myself, explaining who I am and a brief description of my background and knowledge of the subject and then ask the class to introduce themselves and give a brief description of their experience if any of the subject. For those who have experience I explain that I value their input on the subject if they have any experiences on the area in which we are discussing. For the others who might be new to the subject I reassure that by the end of the course they will have a good working knowledge and confidence in the subject. Once in the classroom I would discuss the subject matter that I intend to teach and with this valuable assistance of PowerPoint’s start the course. Throughout the course I encourage class interaction, asking questions for the class to discuss and come up with the answer. Ensuring that all students are involved, encouraging an open discussion. As the majority of my client base is within the care industry the subjects I teach encourage equality and valuing diversity throughout as the main role of a carer is to promote independence of their service users and giving person centred care. Encouraging equality and valuing everyone’s opinion irrelevant of their background or culture, as we can learn from each other as we all have different life experiences. Answer 3 My role within lifelong learning is to make sure all candidates leave my courses learning at least one thing. And to deliver the course in a way that the feel valued and that their voice and opinion was heard. Answer 4 As a trainer I have found that one of the simplest ways to meet the needs of the learners to those I am teaching is by relating to real-life situations and circumstances that I have faced. If you bombard the clients with PowerPoint’s which are just full of facts that they are trying to memorise or record the information becomes more difficult to absorb and less likely to be retained. To promote additional learning a handout is produced, also in an easy to read manner for the learners to review to keep information fresh in their minds. I encourage all candidates to become better carers, by learning more about their service users illness or injury and how this affects their service users.

Wednesday, August 28, 2019

Haldol Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words

Haldol - Research Paper Example The last section includes concluding response to this problem. The method used is particularized examination of the literature together with the critical summarizing and personal inferences on the topic. Haldol is a brand name of an antipsychotic medication that is used by people who suffer from severe physical or mental illness and helps normalize some difficulties occurred within the mental process (Ogbru, 2012). Its generic name is Haloperidol Lactate (AHFS, 2014). This preparation has been approved by the USA Food and Drug Administration in 1967 and after that it has come on the market (Ogbru, 2012). Haldol is manufactured in tablets with 0.5, 1, 2, 5, 10, and 20 mg of Haloperidol in each; according to this oral concentrate is 1 and 2 mg/ml. Injectable solution (lactate) is considered to be 5 mg/ml while injectable solution (decanoate) stands for 50 and 100 mg/ml (Ogbru, 2012). Storage conditions for this drug are remained to be 15-30 C (59-86 F) or it corresponds to normal room temperature (Ogbru, 2012). Information about pricing of this drug has been updated in Feb 2014 and the comparative data includes facts that â€Å"Haloperidol 0.5MG Tablets (SANDOZ): 90/$16.99 or 180/$22.97; Haloperidol 1MG Tablets (MYLAN): 90/$19.99 or 180/$27.98; Haloperidol 10MG Tablets (ZYDUS PHARMACEUTICALS (USA)): 60/$72.99 or 180/$202.98; Haloperidol 2MG Tablets (MYLAN): 90/$20.99 or 270/$40.96; Haloperidol 20MG Tablets (SANDOZ): 60/$124.99 or 180/$342.97; Haloperidol 5MG Tablets (MYLAN): 90/$25.99 or 270/$55.98† (AHFS, 2014). Therefore, it should be admitted that price depends on the quantity of the Haloperidol in one tablet and the number of tablets in the pack. Haloperidol is widely used for the treatment of schizophrenia concerning all stages of the disease â€Å"including acute psychotic episodes as well for long-term stabilization and to minimize risk of relapse† (AHFS, 2014). Also, prolonged antipsychotic therapy for people who suffer from

Culture & Technology Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words - 1

Culture & Technology - Essay Example The paper tries to analyze the relationship and significance of food as an aspect of culture and technology. Bodily circumstances and physical images, like being overweight or slender, are intensely embedded in femininity features and cultural aspects, and represent how people classify themselves differently through food eating habits and cravings. Food offers a wide variety of meanings since the daily practices all over the world revolve around that aspect. There is an extensive range of etiquette, tastes, and cuisines associated to it. Technology dictates a chief role in the food, and beverage industry bringing evolution in the industry as a result of advancement in the technological field. New information has resulted in the invention of several brands and variety in the market bringing about competition and quality brands. As the populace grows, the numerical figure agricultural grower is on the decline. This exerts pressure on transportation and storage space systems. This makes it impractical to overcome the challenges experienced in the food and beverage industry. Nevertheless, technological evolution in food manufacturing industries has resulted to fresh discoveries in nutritional knowledge have led to an increase in the quality and standards hence enhancing the variety of foods. Technology has resulted to forecasting of sales and records organization in the industry thus helping in prediction of sales volume leading to delivery of products in time. Nowadays, the food and beverage industry experiences worldwide competition in the market which is healthy as it promotes quality services. Technology has led to the advancement of marketing procedures and brand name positions in the food and beverage companies. Companies have developed supply series by replacing the old ways of supply with new schemes to surpass their competitors. Food and beverage manufacture

Tuesday, August 27, 2019

Leadership & Communication in Health Care Service Organizations Essay

Leadership & Communication in Health Care Service Organizations - Essay Example Without communication, an organization will not be able to function well. Eventually, this will lead to underachievement of organizational goals considering that the success of an organization is highly influenced by the entire communication process involved. It is in line with this that this paper includes the discussion about leadership, motivation and communication in an organization. The proponent tries to apply the information in line with leadership functions and activities of managers and their influence on the successful performance particularly in health services organizations. Thus, some theories, concepts and terms related with leadership are included based on their association with a successful performance and goal attainment of the health care service organizations. Leadership There are many existing theories about leadership and these primarily include great man, trait, contingency, situational, behavioral, participative, management, and relationship (Cherry par. 1-8). All of these theories have important contribution in understanding the success of health care service organizations. ... Thus, they usually end up differentiating their services and product offerings. However, the implementation of this specific approach is not going to be easy. In fact, this highly involves specific leadership approach depending on the type of strategies at hand. Great man theories assume that leadership is innate and that every great leader is born not made and that they will rise above others if it is necessary, while trait theories state that leadership traits are innate among leaders (Cherry par. 1-2). These theories are believed to be very applicable in an organization before but today the fierce competition existing between health service organizations would require competent leaders based on experience and other relevant qualifications. Thus, it is in this reason that in order to have effective leadership activity, a certain health service organization must necessarily understand other modern leadership concepts. Today’s leadership activity requires basic understanding o f both external and internal business environment. Thus, the remaining leadership theories are making sense on how exactly organizations are performing when it comes to their ability to apply the leadership concept. Contingency theories of leadership state that leader’s response to leadership is affected by factors in the environment such as leadership style, followers and situational aspects (Cherry par. 3). Thus, there are some health service organizations today that try to give more emphasis on enhancing leadership style and character development of their staffs. Situational theories state that leaders choose the best course of action in situations that requires decision making (Cherry par.4).

Monday, August 26, 2019

Poetry Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Poetry - Essay Example The man has to pass through the narrow road, but in the presence of the doe, it could be difficult and might end up causing another accident. While throwing the doe in the river would mean killing the fawn inside the doe’s womb, it was certain that the fawn could not be born anyway. He could still ignore it, since was not his duty. It is a poem of love and compassion that causes the narrator emotional discomfort, between ignoring the situation and moving on, or acting responsibly. Even if doing the right thing is not his duty, even if doing the right thing would disrupt his journey, the heart still insists on doing the right thing. This is a complex real life situation, that presents a battle between the mind and the heart, where the heart insists on compassion, but the mind calls for making a decision based on the line duty. The sense of compassion is calling on him, but the sense of duty urges him to progress. The narrator has to act and stop ignoring the situation. He knows very well that leaving the doe still laid on the road, when it is dark, is likely to cause more accidents. Therefore, he opts to sacrifice his time and remove the doe from the road, for the benefit of other road users. This way, he drags the doe out of the street and into the river, thus clearing the road. This is a poem of responsibility, a poem of self-sacrifice, a poem of performing duty, for the benefit of all. A poem of human compassion for others. â€Å"My Papa’s Waltz† This is a poem of nice memories of a son who spend time with his drunken father waltzing around the house, messing up his mother’s kitchen and disorganizing the house in the name of fun. It is a poem expressing disapproval of the father’s drunkenness, but still expressing the unconditional love the son had for the father. This is a narration of a real life situation, where the relationship between parents and their children could go soar within a family, but one fact remains clear, they are one blood. Therefore, regardless of the bad blood and soar relationship, a child will still love his parents. It is a narration of a family setting where the father is irresponsible and uncaring, messing up the house setting notwithstanding the wife’s concern. It is a story of a father trying to engage his son despite being drunk, a fact that causes more harm than good to the son. Nevertheless, the son is still fond of his father, and has to continue clinging to him even when the dancing turns nasty and disorderly. For the love of his father, the son has to withstand the pain caused on his ears and his wrist as waltzing around the house continues. It is a poem narrating the lifestyle of a family made up of a father who does manual work, and takes alcohol to cool off the pressure caused by his hard labor, but still wants to spend a perfect evening with his children. It’s a poem telling the story of a not so well-to-do family in pursuit of balancing the nature o f their job and the family life. Achieving the balance is quite difficult. Nevertheless, the attempt made, though not wholesomely pleasing, is still worth appreciation. â€Å"Digging† This is a poem narrating the hard work of the old folks, who could do nothing else but sustain their families through tilling the land. It is a reflection of the changing times, when the

Sunday, August 25, 2019

Interpetive Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Interpetive - Essay Example In the beginning, the streets of London are represented by Woolf as amazingly pleasing and interesting to people. Walking around the city of London arouses the imaginations and discoveries of identity where people are unbound to shortly become â€Å"a nomad wandering the desert, a mystic staring at the sky, a debauchee in the slums of San Francisco, a soldier heading a revolution, a pariah howling with skepticism and solitude† (Woolf 3). This sense of liberty and independence while walking the streets of London somehow manages to merge the individual identity of the narrator to those of the passing crowd. The narrator is simply carried away by the exquisiteness and magnificence of the city that dissolves any form of her hang-up into a â€Å"central oyster of perceptiveness† (Woolf 1). Her character then becomes identity-less as she absorbs the color and light of the city roads. But when the door shuts on us, all that vanishes. The shell-like covering which our souls hav e excreted to house themselves, to make fro themselves a shape distinct from others, is broken, and there is left of all these wrinkles and roughness a central oyster of perceptiveness, an enormous eye. How beautiful a street is in winter. (Woolf 1) In addition, the freedom that the modern city of London offers to the narrator allows her to lose herself in the crowd, and thus discovers herself inquiring about the everyday life of a dwarf (reference)? This event of losing oneself while exploring the streets of modern London is the fundamental reason that haunts the narrator. As she walks around the city, she witnesses different disturbing realities: a dwarf woman, two blind men, a retard, and the limping ludicrous dance of â€Å"the humped, the twisted, and the deformed† (Woolf 2). These realities have brought deep thinking to the narrator that makes her feel so lost in the modern world. The monstrosities that the narrator has witnessed and the beauty that she has experienced shake her identity and left her unstable. All the way through the narration of Wolf in her essay â€Å"Street Haunting† this feeling of uncertain identity is stressed out by referring to her narrator as â€Å"we† instead of â€Å"I†: â€Å"We shall never know† (Woolf 4) and â€Å"We are no long quite ourselves† (Woolf 1). The very instance of the narrator stepping out her door and into the modern city of London immediately strips off her individuality for anonymity. She can no longer identify herself with the different oddities and, at the same time, beauty that she is witnessing around the streets of modern London. The narrator becomes estranged to herself because she cannot connect anymore to the outside world that is entirely different to her inside world. Indeed, the various technological advances and behavioral changes brought by the rapid modernization of the London’s society highly contribute to the new definition and understanding of mobility, communication, time, and speed. Contrastingly, these advances and changes have also expanded the modern London outside the limits of coherent perception making the city unfathomable and too intricate for people to figure out. The enormity of the modern society and how it has become incomprehensible is repeatedly expressed in the essay. The narrator’s encounter at the second-hand bookstore conveys how she finds it

Saturday, August 24, 2019

Argument Essay - should school be separated by gender

Argument - should school be separated by gender - Essay Example These trends continued in many institutions that were slow to change, or believed that gender-segregation created a more functional scholastic environment. This essay argues that gender segregation in the scholastic environment is a misguided policy because of the nature of school as used for student development, the problem of stereotypes, the learning experience, and the undemocratic process of such segregation. A counter perspective is also considered. Large amounts of people reject the notion that schools should be segregated along gender lines. There are a variety of reasons that support this perspective. One of the prominent reasons in this mode of understanding is that the scholastic environment does not simply function as a means of promoting education, but also operates as a means of preparing students for the real world and the democratic process. In these regards, restricting school to one gender creates an artificial environment that is not at all reflective of the real world. When this notion is considered on a deeper level one also understands that the process of the scholastic environment functions on a developmental level as well. For instance, children learn how to interact with the opposite sex in romantic and platonic ways. For an individual to successfully function in the real world it becomes necessary for them to learn to navigate such relationships (Barton & Cohen). Individuals that support gender segregation t hen are shortsighted in that they fail to recognize the strong amount of learning that occurs between classes. Within the understanding of students’ development, one also considers the nature of stereotypes. Proponents of gender segregation in the classroom have argued that because of gender differences learning can be more effective and efficient in a gender-segregated classroom. While such theories are rooted in educational theory, a number of people have challenged such

Friday, August 23, 2019

Read two articles relateting to one aspect of early childhood Assignment

Read two articles relateting to one aspect of early childhood curriculum.write a brief synthesis of the articles - Assignment Example Along with the right teaching in Science are different assessment instruments that would help the teacher gain success in classroom. Some of the assessments are: Learning and Knowledge Assessments, Performance-based Assessments for Individualized Instruction, Progress Monitoring, and Curricular Evaluation, and Direct Assessments of Science Learning. Educators are well aware that children learn easily and more effectively if they are enjoying while learning. Since the nature of children in the early childhood education better known as the â€Å"preschool years† are more of â€Å"playing†, educators must capitalize on playing as an effective medium of teaching. Teacher may opt to incorporate the three-play types in their classroom strategies. These play types are the modelled play, open-ended play and finally purposefully framed

Thursday, August 22, 2019

The mass would be measured Essay Example for Free

The mass would be measured Essay Introduction: Magnesium is a metal which need get rid of two electrons; oxygen is a gas at room temperature and it needs two electrons and magnesium oxide is ionic compound because when they join up they are ions and both elements have an opposite charge which creates electrostatic attraction between them creating a very strong bond between the two ions, but they only become ions when oxygen takes electrons away from magnesium. 2Mg(s) + O2 (g) 2MgO(s). The conservation of mass is also involved in this experiment so the theory of conservation of mass is that if I use 48g of magnesium and 32g of oxygen I would get 80g of magnesium oxide, and with this reaction the ratio for mass is 24:16. What I would expect the formula to be is MgO because magnesium needs to lose 2 electrons and oxygen needs to gain 2 electrons so the ratio would be 1:1 so that in every 1million magnesium atoms there would be 1 million oxygen atoms. Preliminary Work: We would be using a total mass of 150cm, we initially have 200cm but encase of mistakes we would only be using 150cm. Since there would be two experiments I would need to divide the amount of magnesium I have in two so each experiment would be using 75g of magnesium. So this means that the lengths would need to go up in 5 (5cm, 10cm, 15cm, 20cm and 25cm). Since 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25 all add up to 75 this would be the only logical method. Using a range this big also allows me to be able to make a comparison between the lengths because the results would end up being very different. Possible Formulas for magnesium oxide Formula Mass of Magnesium (g) Mass of Oxygen (g) Mass of Magnesium Oxide (g) Point to Plot MgO. ) This table shows the plotting point for the graph. All points would be going through point zero (naturally) because if you have no magnesium then it would be impossible to get any magnesium oxide because there is no magnesium atoms more oxygen atoms to join up to make magnesium oxide. This also shows the gradient of each formula so that I can match it to my graph for the main experiment and find out what formula of magnesium oxide I have created in my experiment. Formula Ratio/ Gradient MgO 1. 67 Mg2O 1. 33 MgO2 2. 33 Mg3O2 1. 44 Mg2O3 2 Mg3O 1. 22 The purpose of this graph is so that I could compare the gradient shown on this table to my graph. When I calculate my gradient I would tell what formula of magnesium oxide I have created by seeing which gradient is the closest to my gradient. Timing for reaction The aim here was to find out how long it took for magnesium to burn. Mass (g) Time (m) Crucible + lid + magnesium 50. 76 Crucible + lid 50. 45 Magnesium 0. 31 Crucible + lid + magnesium oxide 50. 93 29. Crucible + lid + magnesium oxide 50. 96 32 Crucible + lid + magnesium oxide 50. 96 35 Crucible + lid 50. 45 Magnesium Oxide 0. 51 What I learned from this is that has the mass increases so does the time it takes for the magnesium to burn. This is because more energy is required to burn more magnesium which means more time would be need to provide it. I can also tell that after repeating to see if there was a reaction there was no longer an increase in mass which meant that there were no longer any oxygen atoms joining up with any magnesium atoms. Main experiment: List of Apparatus I have used: Bunsen Burner   Crucible and Lid   Digital Balance 0. 01g Goggles Heat Proof Mat   Magnesium Ribbon (200cm)   Pipe-clay triangle   Tongs * Tripod Safety We used the crucible and lid because it wont crack which means there would be no injury to anyone. If I was to use glass the chanced of and injury would be high. Another advantage for safety with the crucible is that we wont be able to see the light produced from the creation which means there would be no risk of your eyes being damaged. We used a heat proof mat so that the table will not get burnt or anything else. We would also use goggles because at some point during the experiment we would be lifting the lid to see if the reaction has stopped so using the goggles causes a decrease in glare from the light and it was also used to prevent any particulates from entering my eyes. I also tucked in my tie in my shirt because there was fire from the Bunsen burner and I did not want to get anything easily loose on me to catch fire so tucking my tie in would lower the chances of injury to me. We also checked the heat of the crucible and lid to if it was cool enough to hold by using the harmless method; we hovered our hands over the crucible and lid to see if any heat was radiating to our hands and we could not feel any feat we would light touch the crucible for half a second to get a better sense of the heat and if it feels cool we would then take it back. Method What Im going to measure is the mass of the magnesium ribbons at different lengths, and Im also going to measure the amount of magnesium oxide it makes. The mass would be measured by a digital balance (0.01g), which was very accurate way of measuring the mass because it can detect up to two decimal places. To make sure its a fair test we took two tests for each length so that we could get an accurate average. We also used a pipe-clay triangle so that the crucible would not experience heat loss (if we were using a gauze) which would affect how much magnesium oxide is produced. We also used the ruler to make sure that the lengths that we used were as accurate as it can be so that the results are fair. How we set up the equipment was that we could have the meat proof mat so that there are no burns around the area or the possibility of fire. The crucible and lid would be placed above the pipe-clay triangle so that the heat would reach the crucible in the right place. The tripod would be used to keep the crucible and lid above the Bunsen burner at the right distance. We would also lift the lid from time to time to see if the reaction has stopped. We can tell if the reaction has stopped because there would be no bright light. Then we would reheat it to see if the reaction has fully stopped. We can tell if the reaction has fully stopped because there would be no increase in mass. Next time I would do two experiments at the same time so that I could get my results quicker. DIAGRAM: Length Crucible + lid (g) Crucible + lid + Magnesium (g) Magnesium (g) Average Magnesium (g) Crucible + lid + Magnesium Oxide (g) Magnesium Oxide (g) Average Magnesium Oxide (g) 5cm 4This table shows two results from each length showing the mass of magnesium and the mass of magnesium oxide produced. The two sets of results from each length were then turned to an average so that we can get an accurate figure. I then plotted a graph of these results so that I can see a clear trend. The reason why I took many readings from different lengths is because so that I could get different readings for mass so that I can plot them on the graph at different points so that it can give me a line of best fit.

Wednesday, August 21, 2019

Dance, Girl, Dance Essay Example for Free

Dance, Girl, Dance Essay Dance, Girl, Dance is a film from the Classical Hollywood period that presents a complicated reading when viewed through a feminist lens. The 1940 film was directed by Dorothy Arzner, one of the most notable female directors and the only prominent woman in Hollywood at that time. Arzner presents her audience with an array of female characters, the main characters being Judy O’brien and Bubbles/Tiger Lily White. Judy is a dedicated dancer, honing her talents as a ballerina. Bubbles, on the other hand, uses her looks and sexuality to land jobs as a burlesque dancer. Dance, Girl, Dance reveals these characters’ experience in a dance troupe with several other girls. When the troupe disbands, Bubbles comes to offer Judy a humiliating job as her stooge. As tensions rise, the two eventually come to blows, quite literally, when both fall for the same man, Jimmy Harris. Through their relationship with each other and with men, a dynamic is defined that gives insight into the power of the male gaze and sexual politics, not only in the film but also in society at large in the context of 1930s America. This can be seen in the analysis of a particular scene near the beginning of the film. Judy and one of her roommates, Sally, are preparing for bed after their performance at the nightclub in the opening scene. Bubbles, their third roommate, arrives at home after a disappointing outing with Jimmy. This scene specifically highlights the contrast between the personalities of Judy and Bubbles, and speaks to the many ways female characters are coded based on their sexuality and appearance. The analysis of the scene begins at the moment Bubbles enters the room. She comes into the frame through the doorway in a medium shot. It is important to note her costume, as it speaks to her character. She is wearing makeup, jewelry, a fox fur stole around her shoulders and a feathered hat. One may get the impression that she is trying to look as glamorous or ostentatious as possible on her limited budget. At this point, Bubbles has already been partly established as a brash woman who does not shy away from her ability to attract men. This can be contrasted with Judy’s costume during this scene, modest button-up pajamas. The scene continues as Bubbles enters the tiny apartment. She turns on the light, when Judy whispers that Sally is asleep from off camera. Bubbles leaves the light on, looks down at Sally in the bed, and proceeds to loudly close the door while muttering â€Å"So, what? † As she delivers her dialogue, the camera follows her as she walks to her bed, panning over to include Judy in a two shot. One key element in this simple interaction is the difference of attitude toward female solidarity between Bubbles and Judy. Judy obviously cares to not disturb Sally, while Bubbles seems disappointed and only concerned with her own problems at this point. Then, the camera cuts to a close shot of Sally lying in bed, smiling and clearly awake. She then closes her eyes and continues to try and sleep, rendering her unimportant to the rest of the scene. The next cut brings us back to a long, two shot of Bubbles and Judy as they discuss what happened to Bubbles that evening. Bubbles is explaining how she had gone out with Jimmy, but he suddenly left her at the bar after giving her a little stuffed bull. In this shot, Bubbles is in the foreground, a little closer to the camera than Judy, making her appear slightly larger. This could be interpreted as signifying her social dominance over Judy, and the fact that she â€Å"stole† Jimmy from Judy earlier that evening. Bubbles dismissively tosses the bull onto a chair in front of Judy. Judy picks it up, stating â€Å"It’s cute. † Bubbles tells her that she can have it. The audience is clearly meant to get the impression that the token of the night has no significance to Bubbles, and she is merely disappointed that she could not add Jimmy to her list of men to dote on her occasionally. The camera stays stationary as Bubble walks to the background of the shot and sits on her bed. Judy gently places the bull back on the chair, already showing signs of her eventual fetishization of the bull and Jimmy. Then, she continues to bend and stretch her legs, as Bubbles pouts behind her. It is interesting to point out that as Judy resumes her exercises, she has gained the â€Å"high ground† of the shot. The reminder of her status as a dancer, a more artful and talented dancer than Bubbles, means she is the larger, more significant character in the frame now. The focus has moved from Bubbles proficiency as a female spectacle, completely at home under the male gaze, to Judy’s proficiency as a ballerina, with no real concern for superficial male attention. Then, this is reinforced when there is a cut to a medium shot of Bubbles, looking at Judy. The camera follows Bubbles line of sight and there is a quick cut to a medium shot of Judy, then it reverses back to the shot of Bubbles on her bed, shaking her head. She says, â€Å"I’ll say one thing for you, Pavlova. You’ve certainly got ambition, even if it’s dumb. As she says this, Judy’s foot briefly enters from the side of the frame as she kicks her leg. Once again, Bubbles is coded as having no passion for her craft as a dancer, seeing it as a means to an end of attracting men and/or making money, while Judy genuinely loves to dance. One way of reading the film is through the suggestion that Judy’s ballet is high art, while Bubbles’ burlesque is low art. In the world of the Dance, Girl, Dance, women utilizing their sexuality for physical and financial gratification given by men is deemed less valuable than artistic expression. What follows is a short series of counter shots between the two, as Bubbles ponders how she will get back to New York, going through her list of male suitors to find a solution to her dilemma. On a surface level, this shows that Bubbles needs men to get where she is going, whether it is for a trip to New York or a trip to stardom as they buy tickets to her shows later in the film. The scene comes to a close as Bubbles decides on Sam, the traveling salesman that is â€Å"sweet on her. As this line is delivered, there is a quick cut to Judy whipping her head around to look back at Bubbles. Judy has an expression on her face that is hard to describe, but it gets across the fact that her reality is very different from that of Bubbles’. Judy goes on to ask if there will be room for Sally, as the camera tracks Bubbles while she walks to the bathroom. As the camera stops tracking, it stops in a medium shot of Bubbles as she eventually replies, â€Å"†¦ All right, she can go, b ut don’t blame me. That guy’s got more arms than an octopus. † There is a cut to a close shot of Sally in bed with a wide-eyed, nervous expression as she quickly lifts up her head and plops back down. Like Judy, her reality is very different from the reality of the dynamic Bubbles, and the possibility of encountering a man from that reality seems to frighten her. After the last cut of the scene, it ends on a medium shot of Judy picking up the stuffed bull once again and smiling at it fondly. This emphasizes the fact Judy is not asexual and clearly is developing feelings for Jimmy. Although, Judy seems to have a more deep, emotional connection to Jimmy than Bubbles has for her various men. Judy only became interested in Jimmy after he helped the girls at the nightclub and talked with her earlier in the film. Her interest is not based solely on what he can provide to her. The differences in costume, behavior and motivation between Bubbles and Judy are relevant to a larger scope of the film involving sex and gender politics. For all of the above reasons found in the formal elements of the film’s visual and narrative composition, Bubbles is coded as superficial, purely physical and vapid. On the other hand, Judy is given much more value and depth. While Bubbles goes on to find success by exploiting her good looks, Judy is the winner in the end, when she lands her position in the ballet company and achieves her dreams. In this way, the film is sending a message that female self-worth is not derived from male approval or reaffirming of beauty, but from accomplishment of what are considered to be more substantial goals.

The Third Battle Of Ypres History Essay

The Third Battle Of Ypres History Essay The Battle of Passchendaele also known as the Third Battle of Ypres. This was one of the major battles of World War I and consisted of a series of different operations and engagements between the 31st of July and the 6th of November with the objective of capturing vast amounts of German territory as well as destroying German submarine bases along the Belgian coast in an effort to thwart enemy naval capabilities. This campaign, unlike some others launched in the First World War, was meticulously planned by British Commander-in-Chief General Douglas Haig. However, General Haig was known as a stubborn man and showed major reluctance to modernise his tactics and strategies as a Commander, failing to see the use of artillery and being of the opinion that the Cavalry Charge still had a place in modern military tactics and because of this he may have been responsible for the heavy losses suffered by Allied forces at both Ypres and the Somme due to his unwillingness to deviate from his initi al strategies. The precursor to the Battle of Passchendaele was to be a preliminary artillery barrage against the entrenched Germans and their defenses on June 7, 1917 with the objective of softening the defensive lines to allow for an easier advance by Allied. Earlier, the British and Australians had deviantly planted 21 mines containing 450,000 kilograms of high explosives beneath the German defensive lines and their detonation signalled the initial attack by ANZAC forces who managed to take the town of Messines proper within two hours and subsequently the Messines ridge. The Battle of Messines alerted the already aware Germans of an impending attack. Three Victoria Cross medals were awarded to the ANZAC forces here. -Show Battle of Messines overview and point out battle lines- Following the Battle of Messines British forces began artillery bombardment on the Gheluvelt plateau which overlooked the town of Ypres. The bombardment again notified the German forces of impending attack and they moved troops to the front lines in response. The beginning of what would eventually become known as the Battle of Passchendaele started on July 31st with the Battle of Pilckem Ridge, in which 32,000 Allied lives were lost for the gain of 1,800 meters, and with the Battle of Langemarck which commenced slightly later on the 16th of August. These attacks allowed British forces to secure valuable footholds from which they would later attack Passchendaele. -Show Battle of Passchendaele overview, point out Allied and German positions- It is at this point that General Herbert Plumer took command of the Allied forces from General Hubert Gough, who favoured sweeping aggression, and abandoned the tactics that were failing to help the Allies to gain any appreciable ground and started to employ the same tactics that the ANZACs used successfully in the Battle of Messines. General Plumer planned to create smaller, more easily obtainable objectives instead of having the advancing parties rushing as far as they could before becoming exhausted and being repelled by fresh German reserves. September 20th, 52 days since the beginning of the Battle of Passchendaele. The Allies have gained a mere 2.5 kilometres for the loss of approximately 60,000 men or 24 men per meter. Haig was wagering that the German army would break soon, unable to continue reinforcing the front lines due to the heavy losses they sustained earlier at the Somme and Verdun. Plumer now starts the Battle of Menin Road, an engagement that would last 5 days. German defences are fierce with many young Australian soldiers falling to the bullets and shells of enemy infantry, pillboxes and artillery, ultimately limiting the gain of the Allies to 1,400 meters of territory while costing the lives 21,000 Allied soldiers or 15 men per meter gained, ANZAC deaths included. It followed a heavy artillery barrage with a reported 3.5 million artillery shells being fired with an allotment of one artillery piece for every five yards of the attack front. This major loss of ground by the Germans convinced them that their p revious tactic of defence in depth was obsolete and prompted a change in the way the lines were reinforced and held to create a more elastic defence. This caused heavier loses for the Germans during the preparatory bombardment and their subsequent counter-attacks. This would bode well for the Australians as more lives were about to be thrown at the enemy for more trivial territory gains. -Show picture of Australian soldiers are the Battle of Polygon Wood- The day after the Battle of Menin Road the Australian 4th and 5th Divisions would fight in a small conflict called the Battle of Polygon Wood, named for the shape the woods lay across the axis of the advancing Australian forces. The Australians were tasked with building upon the gains made during the Battle of Menin Road, however atop a large earthen mound overlooking the battlefield was the German position, heavily fortified by machine gun nests, dugouts and foxholes, ready to repel the advancing forces. Artillery covering the advance of Australian soldiers was heavy with one gun for every nine meters of the front, demolishing the Wood itself and destroying some of the German emplacements. By the time the soldiers had assaulted German positions the wood had been reduced to naught but splinters and broken wood but despite the heavy bombardment by Allied artillery, German pillboxes harassed the Australian soldiers, protecting the machine gunners hidden inside, ending the lives of appr oximately 7,200 Aussie men. It was the courage, mateship, fighting spirit and unwillingness to back down that helped the Australian soldiers take the Wood that was so heavily defended by the German army and repel the subsequent desperate counter-attacks launched. The following Battle of Broodseinde was the final time General Plumers strategy of biting and holding territory was successful and was a shining example that the spirit of the Allied forces could overcome even the hardest of German defences. From the outlook the men of I ANZAC and II ANZAC were tasked with capturing the crest of the previously mentioned Gheluvelt Plateau In conclusion, the Battle of Passchendaele was a cohesive event for the Australians as they gained respect as a formidable and capable fighting force from their Allies, strengthening the bond between the nations fighting men. It is also the embodiment of the courageous fighting spirit shown by the ANZACs that allowed the men to continue taking the battle to the Germans after losing 38,000 men of the original 70,000 to the bitter battle of attrition. For the massive number of troops lost on both sides, approximately 310,000 for the Allies and 260,000 for the Germans, for the gain of only a few kilometres. It is interesting to note that Adolf Hitler fought in the Battle of Passchendaele with the 6th Bavarian Reserve Division where he was injured on October 13, 1918 by a British gas attack.

Tuesday, August 20, 2019

Artifact Study of an Olympiakos Soccer Jersey :: Greece Greek Sports Essays

Artifact Study of an Olympiakos Soccer Jersey Introduction The artifact of appearance I have chosen is a soccer jersey representing Olympiakos, a team in the top Greek league. I acquired this article of clothing during the summer of 1995. Many factors have contributed to my interest in Greek soccer jerseys. These include my Greek heritage, my family's fanaticism with soccer, and the growing popularity of sports jerseys in the, for severe lack of a better term, alternative subculture. In this paper, I will perform an artifact study on this jersey. For another example of an artifact study, see my first project. The steps of an artifact study are Identification, Evaluation, Cultural Analysis,and Interpretation. Identification History This jersey was manufactured in Greece most likely by a textile or clothing company that has a merchandising agreement with the Olympiakos organization. In early June of 1995 my uncle Petro bought the jersey, along with other sports items, and mailed them to my home. He intended for my brother and I to split the contents of the package; however, I quickly claimed all the items as my own after my brother expressed no interest in the jerseys. Since that day I have had the jersey in my possession. Material The jersey is constructed from a mix of several obviously artificial fabrics. Unlike football or lacrosse jerseys, it does not have a very open weave. The insignia, number, and sponsor logo are made from felt and attached to the jersey. Construction The workmanship of the jersey seems to be average. There are no major flaws in the design or material. The only apparent imperfection is a small thread unraveling on the sleeve. From the material and workmanship, it is safe to assume that the jersey was mass-produced. Design The jersey closely resembles the red and white one in the picture above left. The stripes though are thinner and the jersey has long sleeves. Also, the neck is cut in a low 'V'. Like the jersey in the picture, the team insignia, shown in the background of this document and in the above right image, is located over the left breast and the sponsor logo, in both cases Mastercard, is on the front center of the jersey. The jersey pictured has the logo and insignia in color, while my jersey is detailed completely in black. The number 10 is on the back in black felt. Function This Olympiakos jersey is primarily designed to be casually worn.

Monday, August 19, 2019

Governments In Star Wars V.s. Governments In The Home :: essays research papers

Governments In Star Wars V.S. Governments in the Home In the movie "Star Wars" their exist many different forms of government. In this essay I will be comparing those forms in the movie to the ones found in the home. I will be starting with the most basic form of government and working up to the most complex. The most basic form of government is anarchy, The total absence of government. In the movie the best example of anarchy is Yoda, living by himself on Dagohba without the interference of any one apart from self. An example of this at home would be when children are left at home while their parents are away for any extended period of time. Unlike Yoda though, the children do not live in a total anarchist state for they will eventual have to answer to their parents when they return. The next most primitive form of government is a direct democracy as shown by the Ewoks. The Ewoks probably started out as many small groups that lived separate from one another and grew into what they are now through the evolution theory where, over time banned together in order to provide an easier means to access the necessities of life for the groups. At the time you see them in the movie they seem to be using a tribal form of government where the elders make up the governing body, but let every one else take part in the policy making process. Besides using a tribal form of government they also believe in divine right, or a god given someone the right to rule them as demonstrated by the Ewoks immediate worship of C3-P0 upon sight. This can be compared to any modern family a moving into an apartment along with many other families where there is a manager, but the every one living in the building can have a say of what goes on with the policy for the building. Another basic type of government is a dictatorship where only a small group or one person have control of a group of people. There is two different examples of a dictator ship in â€Å"Star Wars†, one is the Emperor's, which will be discussed later, and that of Jabba's. Jabba is a gangster on Lukes' home planet which is controlled by the empire. Jabba has a dictatorship over a small group of people and has a territory in which he has sovereignty, and therefore has all the qualities of a state. He has total control of his area including without having to give to the will of the people he governs.

Sunday, August 18, 2019

Essay --

In a patriarchal society that enforces the construction of heterosexual citizenship we are policed to follow normative discourses and structures that regulate social policies encouraging heteronormative behavior. Dominant ideologies of sexuality thus regulate and normalize social policies that create this second-class status for LGBT people. Those who fail to comply with conventional male and female behaviors are forced to live on the margins of society, excluding them from social, legal and economic rewards forcing homosexual individuals to live a life where they are required to constantly defend their sexual loyalties. The following essay will be used to discuss the challenges to normative constructions of sexuality by dismantling the naturalization of heterosexuality in analyzing the binary of heteronormativity with the use of the song ‘Same Love’ by hip-hop artist Macklemore. Heterosexuality is a political institution, which disempowers women and men by taking away their right to citizenship. Rapper Macklemore’s track provides a social commentary for the discussion of homosexual love in todays mainstream music. By expressing his support towards the sanction of gay marriage he is challenging normative sexuality, and spreading awareness towards a now-present social issue. By analyzing the song, music video and live Grammy performance it is clear LGBT communities break down taboos by rejecting this idea of a compulsory lifestyle. Using the work and writing of Lord, Ingraham and Concannon this paper will explore the relationship between citizenship, sexual identity and social exclusion. â€Å"The Silencing of Sexuality† by author Cassandra Lord focuses on the negative response society places on homosexuality. The concept of living a... ...owards heteronormativity. What people refer to, as normal human behavior doesn’t necessarily apply to everyone. However, due to conservative traditional and religious beliefs, the integration of homosexuals in society is often met with resistance. It can therefore be said that societal conservative tendencies have led to the intolerance of homosexuality therefore causing the inequality of LGBT men and women. In order to challenge normative constructions on sexuality one must first acknowledge that discrimination is still evident and continues to be a reason behind socio-political exclusion. The operations behind social policies cause oppression and isolation, and only re-thinking our approach in delivering new policies can hopefully one day meet the needs for a diverse lifestyle or in the words of Macklemore â€Å"It's human rights for everybody, there is no difference!†

Saturday, August 17, 2019

Physical restraints in special education Essay

Physical restraint is the use of physical force to significantly limit free movement of parts of the body or the whole body. It is a practice whereby people are rendered helpless or are kept in captivity through the use of straps, ropes, straitjackets, fetters, handcuffs and any other way of retraining people physically. In this regard, it should be done when a person poses threat property, self or others. In relation to special education, it is usually done to the students who as a result of their conditions may pose risks to themselves, the other students or even the staff (Magee & Ellis, 2001). There are reports to indicate that there are many allegations regarding abuse of physical restraint practices in schools. These involve cases where it is used even when the said children are not dangerous or physically aggressive to self o other people. Statistics show that between 1990 and 2009, investigators have found hundreds of allegations revolving around abuse, seclusion and restraint in both private and public schools. On the other hand, there is also evidence that some teachers are not fully trained on the techniques they should use regarding the same. While nineteen states lack the necessary regulations or laws on seclusion or restraint, only seven states have them. Most of the people who use these restraint and seclusion do not seem to understand the techniques involved and short and long term effects they have on the people they are used on. In most cases, parents and guardians have not consented to the techniques and are usually surprised that they are being used. There are more and more cases of teachers who are using physical restraint even before they have tried the other methods of instilling discipline to the students (Mohr & Anderson, 2001). The experts agree that it is a good method of restoring order in case of an emergency. However, they contend that this method should only be used as a last resort and not immediately. If the method is used properly, it can be effective according to experts. When all the other methods have been tried and they seem not to work, the teachers and other school staff members can use this method. Some states which are against the technique have banned it. Any other kind of restraint which has the potential to cause the death of the child or injure the child further is also prohibited in some states. They only allow it in the event that the safety of the staff member and the students is at risk as a result of the violent and challenging behavior of the student in question (Skoulos & Tryon, 2007). The trend however has been on the immediate use of physical restraint. The Massachusetts law on the same allow the use of physical restraints. Physical restraints should only be used during emergence situations after the failure of other techniques but should be used with caution. It requires schools to have written procedures for physical restraints and to conduct detailed training in their schools for the same. It claims that when non-physical interventions have failed and the behavior of the student continues to pose risks to self and others, then the teachers and other staff member can use physical restraints. However, it should never be used to respond to verbal threats, students’ rebuttal to comply with rules, disruption of school order or property destruction. It requires that in the event that the student shows distress as a result of using physical restraint, he should be released and medical assistance should immediately be sought (Magee & Ellis, 2001). There are some reasons as to why the staff members use physical restraints immediately compared to as a last resort. First is the fear of being injured. According to studies, once a person starts acting in a way which the society considers as abnormal, there is a high tendency of the people around such a person to run way for their own safety. This is usually like a reflex action and people in most cases think about it later. In this regard, when a student behaves abnormally, the teachers and other staff members try to help after the first shock. Due to the confusion about the potential consequences and their roles as staff members, they might lack other best ways of containing the situation. Most of them use physical restraints as they seek for other ways of helping such a student (Gersch & Gersch, 2002). Second is the fear that the student behavior might cause harm to him or the other students. Physical restraints help to control the situation until the staff member can come up with a better solution. In this case, most of the physical restraining involves holding the affected student and preventing him from causing harm. Once the student and the ones around him are safe, the staff member can think clearly of a better solution. Third is the issue of lack of training. Although most of the states which have allowed physical restraints have regulations regarding training about it, we still have many staff members who have not learnt on the way it is applied. They also lack the knowledge on other ways of dealing with abnormal behaviours of the student. When such a staff member is confronted with a situation whereby a student seems to lack control and poses threat to him or other people, the first think that is likely to come to mind is how to control such a student, mostly by holding the student down. In this case, the staff member ends up using physical restraints without first trying other methods. He can not use other methods because he has not been trained on the same (Thomas & Loxley, 2007). Using physical restraint immediately or as a last resort is not as major as its misuse. There have been very many cases regarding its misuse which have resulted into physical injuries or even death. For example, Annie’s son is evidence to the negative consequences of physical restrained on children who are uncontrollable. Her autistic son is claimed to have been acting out in school he was taken for a time out where the mother alleges that the school personnel had held him down since he ended with a broken collarbone. After some time the bone healed, however, the child had emotional damage and he kept asking the mother whether the person who broke his collarbone was taken to jail and the mother had to give a negative answer. After seven weeks, Annie’s son harmed himself and was admitted in a psychiatric hospital for two months (Day, 2002). This is only one case of misuse of physical restraints. There are other cases of the same which have resulted into the death of the victims. Such cases have brought controversy to the issue and many parents are now of the opinion that it should be totally banned for the fear of their children’s lives. The Council for Exceptional Children however is in support of physical restraint as a technique for dealing with the children who have behavioural cases. However, they still maintain that it should only be used as a last resort when such a child poses danger to self and to the people around him. The body recommends the establishment of regulations which would facilitate reporting of physical restraints to outside agencies (Ryan, Robbins, Peterson & Rozalski, 2009). The council is also in support of the same but recommends that research to be done on kids from all kinds of settings. The policy gives the indication to the availability of other methods which teachers can use to contain behavior. It is against the harm that may come to a child as a result of misusing physical restraint. The CEC’s recommendations regarding the same tallies with the Massachusetts law on the same (Jones & Timbers, 2003). Studies show that physical restraint has been used over a long time in medical institutions. This has been possible because there are guidelines for the same. However, in the case of physical restraint and schools, there are not such guidelines. Lack of commonly accepted guidelines in schools put the people who use in vulnerable position where they are often understood and at times abused. In this regard, the staff may not have the necessary skills to deal with children who have emotional outbursts or the kids who have behavioural problems. At times, such interventions are very important to deal with such cases as they help to prevent the behavior of students from increasing to harmful levels. Another issue which poses a problem regarding the use of physical restraints in school is the fact that it was thrust into public education mainstream without prior proper planning. This was partly due to the Act for education of the people with disabilities whose principles include serving the individuals who have special needs in an environment which is least restrictive. Nowadays, there are many children with behavioural and emotional problems being admitted in the public schools irrespective of the disability label. This implies that the issue of physical restraints move with them to the public schools and typical classroom and school settings. At the same time, the media has played part in creating a lot of attention regarding the issue and schools are now more than ever before required to show practices which are capable of containing the violent and challenging behavior. Many of them have therefore resulted into making use of physical restrain as one of the tools to ensure that the challenging behavior is contained. This produces another challenge in the sense that if the staff members are not well trained on physical restraint; they may end up causing more harm to the affected children. This leads to lawsuits from the affected children’s parents and other problems for the whole family (Mohr & Anderson, 2001). The way forward therefore would be to come up with many ways in which the violent or challenging behavior can be contained. Once this is done, schools should undertake thorough training of its staff members to ensure that they are well equipped with the right techniques. The training should not be based on physical restraints only. We have already discovered that there are many people who turn to physical restraints simply because they lack other methods of containing challenging behavior. The school staff should be trained in the various methods so that in case of an emergency, they have a variety to choose from. There are also many programs which are available for training people on physical restraints. These also teach different methods of problem solving and conflict de-escalation. They also teach the right procedures for the different approaches for the same. Schools should invest in such programs to ensure that their staff members are equipped with the right techniques and procedures of behavior control methods. They should also make sure that there is recurrent training so that the staff members always keep on toes regarding the same issue (Magee & Ellis, 2001). There should also be an extensive research on the use of physical restraints. Most of the studies have shown negative effects of physical restraints. Researchers claim that physical restraints are an effective tool for controlling behavior which is likely to lead to harm. However, most of them do not show how many cases have been successful as a result of using this method. If it is agreed to be an effective method, there should be evidence in support of the same. There are however numerous studies’ showing that physical restraint has been misused and it has led to escalation of the problems. There have been deaths, physical injuries, emotional and psychological harm as a result of using physical restraints. There have cases of children being unable to trust grow ups due to having being subjected to physical restraints by the same adults. In other words, there are many problems which have come up as a result of using physical restraints in schools. The efficacy of using physical restraints is largely in doubt or the research showing positive effects for the same are usually lacking. This means that it might not be as effective as people wish. In order to maintain conducive learning environments in addition to controlling violent and challenging behavior, schools need to come up with less harmful methods. On the other hand, if they wish to use physical restraints, they should be equipped with the necessary information which they are supposed to transfer to their staff members. This way, it might have positive effects on schools (Mohr & Anderson, 2001). Conclusion A restrictive school environment can be blamed for the use of physical restraints in schools. The intent was to use it as a last resort when all the other methods have failed. However, due to factors like fear and lack of skills in other methods of controlling violent behavior, people end up using it immediately there is violent behavior. This contributes to the major negative effects which come as a result. The schools which are willing to use it as one of the techniques should train the staff on the right procedures in order to reduce its misuse. This would give evidence that physical restraints can be an effective method to control challenging and violent behavior. Reference: Day, D. M. , (2002), Examining the therapeutic utility of restraints and seclusion with children and youth: The role of theory and research in practice. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 72, 266-278. Gersch, Irvine S. & Gersch, Adam, (2002), Resolving Disputes in Special Educational Needs: A Practical Guide to Conciliation and Mediation, RoutledgeFalmer Jones, R. J. & Timbers, G. T. , (2003), Minimizing the need for physical restraint and seclusion in residential youth care through skill-based treatment programming. Families in Society: The Journal of Contemporary Human Services, 04(1), 21-29. Magee, S. K. & Ellis, J. , (2001), The detrimental effects of physical restraint as a consequence for inappropriate classroom behavior, Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 34, 501-504. Mohr, W. K. & Anderson, J. A. (2001), Faulty assumptions associated with the use of restraints with children, Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Nursing, 74(3), 141-154. Ryan, Joseph B. , Robbins, Katherine, Peterson, Reece & Rozalski, Michael, (2009), Review of State Policies concerning the Use of Physical Restraint Procedures in Schools, Education & Treatment of Children, Vol. 32 Skoulos, Vasilios & Tryon, Georgiana Shick, (2007), Social Skills of Adolescents in Special Education Who Display Symptoms of Oppositional Defiant Disorder, American Secondary Education, Vol. 35 Thomas, Gary & Loxley, Andrew, (2007), Deconstructing Special Education and

Friday, August 16, 2019

The Definition of White Collar Crime

In this paper the exciting criminal phenomenon known as white-collar crime will be discussed. Corporate Crime and Computer Crime will be discussed in detail. Crime preventative agencies such as the NCPC (National Crime Prevention Council) will also be researched. The late Professor Edwin Sutherland coined the term white-collar crime about 1941. Sutherland defined white-collar crime as â€Å"a crime committed by a person of respectability and high social status in the course of his occupation† (Siegel 337) White-collar crime includes, by way of example, such acts as promulgating false or misleading advertising, illegal exploitation of employees, mislabeling of goods, violation of weights and measures statutes, conspiring to fix prices, evading corporate taxes, computer crimes, and so on. White-collar crime is most distinctively defined in terms of attitudes toward those who commit it. These crimes are punishable by law, however it is generally regarded by the courts and by sections of the general public as much less reprehensible than crimes usually punished by the courts. The other types of crime are blue-collar offenses, which are predominately crimes of the under-privileged. White-collar crimes are punished far less harshly than blue-collar crimes, which shows societies attitudes towards the two sections of society. White-collar crime is attractive to criminals because it brings material rewards with little or no loss of status. (Taft & England 201) For some, white-collar crime is not viewed as a â€Å"crime† at all, because of its non-violent nature. Violent crime has an immediate and observable impact on its victim which raises the ire of the public, whereas white-collar crime frequently goes undetected or is viewed as a bending of the rules. Yet white-collar crime can create the greater havoc. The victim of an assault will recover; however, the impact of a fraud can last a lifetime. This is especially true when the elderly are victimized, as they have little or no hope of re-establishing themselves in financial terms. Contrary to the popular belief, white-collar criminals are thieves and the methods used to conceal their offenses are both artful and ingenious. Concealment of the crime is always an objective of the offender, and it becomes an element of the crime itself. Because it is an artful form of deceit, which is skillfully disguised, the investigation itself is often long and laborious as far as proving criminal intent is concerned. The offence itself may be disguised in a maze of legitimate transactions, which are quite proper if viewed in isolation; however, the cumulative effect is the commission of a criminal offence. From the standpoint of the criminal, the ideal white- collar crime is one that will never be recognized or detected as a criminal act. Corporate crime is the type of crime that is engaged in by individuals and groups of individuals who become involved in criminal conspiracies designed to improve the market share or profitability of their corporations. ( Siegel 338) Corporations are legal entities, which can be and are subjected to criminal processes. There is today little restriction on the range of crimes for which corporations may be held responsible, though a corporation cannot be imprisoned. The most controversial issue in regard to the study of corporate crime revolves around the question of whether corporate crime is â€Å"really crime. † Corporate officials, politicians, and many criminologists object to the criminological study of corporate criminality on the strictest sense of the word. The conventional and strictly legal definition of crime is that it is an act, which violates the criminal law and is thereby punishable by a criminal court. From this perspective a criminal is one who has been convicted in a criminal court. Given these widely accepted notions of crime and criminals, it is argued that what is called corporate crime is not really crime and should not be considered as such by either the public or criminologists. (Hochstedler 22) It does appear that now in recent times society has had a growing concern about white-collar and corporate crime. Studies have indicated that the public now judges white-collar criminality to be more serious than it had been in the past, people now have lost confidence in the people running major companies, and most American corporate executives are believed to be dishonest. The public's concern with corporate crime has grown recently, but has been evident for several years. I will use one of the most memorable corporate crime cases in history; The Ford Pinto Case to prove my statement. (Cullen/Maakestad/Cavender 43) The product liability lawsuit and appeal titled Grimshaw v. Ford Motor Company is a case in point and ought to be read by everyone. Grimshaw is an example of the type of thing that can happen when an industry insolates itself from competition. The Pinto affair has very important lessons for us all. Its story can teach us much about the power of huge corporations and what corporations can do when they face no real competition. It carries an important lesson about how the minds of those who run the world's colossal corporations work. In November of 1971 the Grays purchased a new 1972 Pinto hatchback manufactured by Ford in October of 1971. The Grays had trouble with the car from the outset. During the first few months of ownership, they had to return the car to the dealer for repairs a number of times. Their car problems included excessive gas and oil consumption, down shifting of the automatic transmission, lack of power, and occasional stalling. It was later learned that the stalling and excessive fuel consumption were caused by a heavy carburetor float. On May 28, Mrs. Gray, accompanied by 13-year-old Richard Grimshaw, set out in the Pinto from Anaheim for Barstow to meet Mr. Gray. The Pinto was then six months old and had been driven approximately 3,000 miles. Mrs. Gray stopped in San Bernardino for gasoline, got back onto the freeway (Interstate 15) and proceeded toward her destination at 60 – 65 miles per hour. As she approached the Route 30 off-ramp where traffic was congested, she moved from the outer fast lane to the middle lane of the freeway. Shortly after this lane change, the Pinto suddenly stalled and coasted to a halt in the middle lane. It was later established that the carburetor float had become so saturated with gasoline that it suddenly sank, opening the float chamber and causing the engine to flood and stall. A car traveling immediately behind the Pinto was able to swerve and pass it but the driver of a 1962 Ford Galaxie was unable to avoid colliding with the Pinto. The Galaxie had been traveling from 50 to 55 miles per hour but before the impact had been braked to a speed of 28 to 37 miles per hour. At the moment of impact, the Pinto caught fire and its interior was engulfed in flames. According to the plaintiff's expert, the impact of the Galaxie had driven the Pinto's gas tank forward and caused it to be punctured by the flange or one of the bolts on the differential housing so that fuel sprayed from the punctured tank and entered the passenger compartment through gaps resulting from the separation of the rear wheel well sections from the floor pan. By the time the Pinto came to rest after the collision, both occupants had sustained serious burns. When they emerged from the vehicle, their clothing was almost completely burned off. Mrs. Gray died a few days later of congestive heart failure as a result of the burns. Grimshaw managed to survive but only through heroic medical measures. He has undergone numerous and extensive surgeries and skin grafts and was expected to have to undergo additional surgeries over the next 10 years. He lost portions of several fingers on his left hand and portions of his left ear, hile his face required many skin grafts from various portions of his body. This graphic account of these events is needed to grasp the full impact of this tragic situation which could have been avoided by Ford for very minimal cost. Each Pinto could have been repaired for $4-$8 a piece. Management knew of these defects but still decided to produce and release the Pinto to the public. The idea for the Pinto, as has been noted, was conceived by Mr. Iacocco [sic], the Executive Vice President of Ford. The feasibility study was conducted under the supervision of Mr. Robert Alexander, Vice President of Car Engineering. Ford's Product Planning Committee, whose members included Mr. Iacocca, Mr. Robert Alexander, and Mr. Harold MacDonald, Ford's Group Vice President of Car Engineering, approved the Pinto's concept and made the decision to go forward with the project. Harley Copp, a former Ford engineer and executive in charge of the crash testing program, testified that the highest level of Ford's management made the decision to go forward with the production of the Pinto, knowing that the gas tank was vulnerable to uncture at low rear impact speeds creating a significant risk of death or injury from fire and knowing that fixes were feasible at nominal cost. He testified that management's decision was based on the cost savings, which would inure from omitting the fixes. This was the corporation's outright trade of human life for profit. The jury in this case brought in a verdict for the plaintiffs in excess of $128 million of which $125 million were punitive damages. There is another very important point to be made by this case. Ford knew that the Pinto was going to kill or burn people because of its design, but, because of the â€Å"cost savings which would inure from omitting the fixes,† Ford decided to let it go. Consider carefully exactly what Ford Motor Company was doing here. One could argue that Ford was conducting cost-benefit analysis. To the Ford executives, the benefits were clear, calculable, and immediately available. Ford would save a few dollars on each Pinto manufactured. The costs would accrue in the future and would not be paid by Ford. Unfortunately, the costs were the lives and permanent injuries of nameless and faceless future consumers. The Pinto would appear to be a prime example of laying off costs. The suffering, the destroyed lives and families apparently were of minor consideration in the calculations when Ford performed the cost-benefit analysis. Corporate crime has also been linked to political leaders in this country. Corporate crime is a crime of power and profit for the offenders. Large and powerful corporations who have the support of prominent political leaders can be difficult to prosecute in corporate crime cases. At the Progress & Freedom Foundation conference held at the Mayflower Hotel in Washington, D. C. , Speaker of the House Newt Gingrich (R-Georgia) was asked why he spent so much time addressing the issue of street crime and violence, while ignoring the issue of corporate crime and violence. Gingrich answered, â€Å"If I went around the country and said, ‘Vote for us and there will be no more white-collar fraud,' the average voter will say, ‘I don't think he gets it. ‘† But corporate crime is more than just white-collar fraud. And one reason that Gingrich doesn't address the issue of corporate crime might be because one of the corporations that has brought him to power is Southwire Co. of Carrollton, Georgia. Southwire has close ties to Gingrich, it dominates the political economy of Carroll County, where Gingrich's political career was launched, and it is a corporation with a criminal record. Individuals affiliated with Southwire Co. , including its chief executive officer, Roy Richards, and its president, James Richards, have donated more than $18,000 to Gingrich's campaigns for Congress during the past ten years. According to the Los Angeles Times, James Richards has also donated 80,200 to GOPAC, the political action committee spearhearded by Gingrich. Computer technology has introduced new factors concerning the types of perpetrators, the forms of assets threatened, and embezzlement methods. ( Radzinowicz 357) Computer crimes generally fall into five categories: 1) theft of services 2) use of computer data for personal gain 3) unauthorized use of computers employed for various types of financial processing 4) property theft by computer 5) placing viruses to destroy data. The terms â€Å"computer misuse† and â€Å"computer abuse† are also used frequently, but they have significantly different implications. Criminal law recognizes the concepts of unlawful or fraudulent intent and of claim of right; thus, any criminal laws that relate to computer crime would need to distinguish between accidental misuse of a computer system, negligent misuse of a computer system and intended, unauthorized access to or misuse of a computer system, amounting to computer abuse. Annoying behavior must be distinguished from criminal behavior in law. History has shown that a broad range of persons commits computer crime: students, amateurs, terrorists and members of organized crime groups. What distinguishes them is the nature of the crime committed. The individual who accesses a computer system without further criminal intent is much different from the employee of a financial institution who skims funds from customer accounts. The typical skill level of the computer criminal is a topic of controversy. Some claim that skill level is not an indicator of a computer criminal, while others claim that potential computer criminals are bright, eager, highly motivated subjects willing to accept a technological challenge, characteristics that are also highly desirable in an employee in the data-processing field. According to a number of studies, however, employees represent the largest threat, and indeed computer crime has often been referred to as an insider crime. One study estimated that 90 per cent of economic computer crimes were committed by mployees of the victimized companies. A recent survey in North America and Europe indicated that 73 per cent of the risk to computer security was attributable to internal sources and only 23 per cent to external criminal activity. The American Bar Association conducted a survey in 1987: of 300 corporations and government agencies, 72 claimed to have been the victim of computer-related crime in the 12-month period prior to the survey, sustaining losses estimated to range from $ 145 million to $ 730 million. In 1991, a survey of security incidents involving computer-related crime was conducted at 3,000 Virtual Address Extension (VAX) sites in Canada, Europe and the United States of America. Seventy-two per cent of the respondents said that a security incident had occurred within the previous 12-month period; 43 per cent indicated that the security incident they had sustained had been a criminal offence. A further 8 per cent were uncertain whether they had sustained a security incident. Similar surveys conducted around the world report significant and widespread abuse and loss. Computer criminals have gained notoriety in the media and appear to have gained more social acceptability than traditional criminals. The suggestion that the computer criminal is a less harmful individual, however, ignores the obvious. The current threat is real. The future threat will be directly determined by the advances made in computer technology. Although it is difficult to quantify the scope of the computer crime problem, public reports have estimated that computer crime costs us between five hundred million and ten billion dollars per year. The Computer Security Institute has surveyed 428 information security specialists in Fortune 500 companies; 42% of the respondents indicated that there was an unauthorized use of their computer systems in the last year. Only a small portion of computer crimes come to the attention of the law enforcement authorities. While it is possible to give an accurate description of the various types of computer offences committed, it has proved difficult to give an accurate, reliable overview of the extent of losses and the actual number of criminal offences. At its Colloquium on Computer Crimes and Other Crimes against Information Technology, held at Wurzburg, Germany, from 5 to 8 October 1992, AIDP released a report on computer crime based on reports of its member countries that estimated that only 5 per cent of computer crime was reported to law enforcement authorities. Law enforcement officials indicate from their experience that recorded computer crime statistics do not represent the actual number of offences; the term â€Å"dark figure†, used by criminologists to refer to unreported crime, has been applied to undiscovered computer crimes. The invisibility of computer crimes is based on several factors. First, sophisticated technology, that is, the immense, compact storage capacity of the computer and the speed with which computers function, ensures that computer crime is very difficult to detect. In contrast to most traditional areas of crime, unknowing victims are often informed after the fact by law enforcement officials that they have sustained a computer crime. Secondly, investigating officials often do not have sufficient training to deal with problems in the complex environment of data processing. Thirdly, many victims do not have a contingency plan for responding to incidents of computer crime, and they may even fail to acknowledge that a security problem exists. The dynamic nature of computer technology, compounded by specific considerations and complications in applying traditional laws to this new technology, dictate that the law enforcement, legal and judicial communities must develop new skills to be able to respond adequately to the challenge presented by computer crime. The growing sophistication of telecommunications systems and the high level of expertise of many system operators complicate significantly the task of regulatory and legal intervention by law enforcement agencies. If the law enforcement community is expected to deal with the problem of computer crime, adequate training sessions must be implemented. To address computer crime, most police departments are allocating a greater proportion of resources to their economic or fraud investigation divisions, since many types of computer crime occur in the course of business transactions or affect financial assets. Accordingly, it is important for investigators to know about business transactions and about the use of computer in business. The ideal situation is to have investigators with not only solid criminal investigation backgrounds but also supplementary technical knowledge. This is similar to the traditional approach, where many police forces ensure that their fraud investigators, although not necessarily accountants, possess a thorough understanding of financial and business record keeping.

Thursday, August 15, 2019

Characterization in William Shakespeare’s “Hamlet” and “Macbeth” Essay

William Shakespeare is regarded by many as one, if not the greatest writer of all time. It is interesting to note that his success is due to his tragedies. â€Å"Hamlet† and â€Å"Macbeth† are two of his best known work. Both titles deal with the tragedy of aristocratic people. Though, it appears that Shakespeare is fond of representing only one part of the society, he is actually talking about a very human flaw. Through the characters of his protagonists Hamlet and Macbeth, Shakespeare is suggesting that the real tragedy is found within one’s self. Initially, Shakespeare had characterized Macbeth as a brave warrior. The wounded captain tells the audience that Macbeth was wounded in the battlefield, suggesting that he had fought bravely. But as the plot progresses, the audience discovers that he is less admirable. This is immediately noticeable when Macbeth had met the witches. The witches told them that Macbeth would be the thane of Cawdor. Although, Macbeth says he does not want to think of the prophecy because the thane of Cawdor is still alive, he seems to ponder on the thought, â€Å"the thane of Cawdor lives: why do you dress me in Borrow’d robes?† There is a hint of irony in Macbeth words. It is like he wants to be thane of Cawdor but says he does not. Aside from mere false modesty, the audience would learn that Macbeth harbors within himself some self-doubt. If it was not for Lady Macbeth, Macbeth could have not done anything that he is certain he wants to do. On the other hand, Hamlet seems to be a more flawed character than Macbeth. He is constantly thinking about how to kill Claudius and exact revenge for his father. However, when he got his first chance to kill Claudius, he made a pass on the chance to do so. When Hamlet caught Claudius in prayer, he did not kill Claudius be cause he thought his father’s murderer might go to heaven. Perhaps a helpful quote to use is the famous â€Å"to be or not to be? † That line is a succinct description for Hamlet as he always contradicts himself. Shakespeare’s talent for being able to describe the complexity of the human brain, had made his works classics. Shakespeare seems to be more fond of the flaws of the thought process rather than physical flaws. That is in opposition to earlier works by other authors such as Oedipus Rex, where the protagonist has a deformed foot. Shakespeare’s protagonists are most of the time described as well-to-do. Both Hamlet and Macbeth are even admirable in the initial portions of their respective stories. But Shakespeare reveals that their flaws is on how they think. With Hamlet and Macbeth always contradicting themselves, a tragic conclusion seems inevitable. But their real tragedy is not because one would go insane and the other would be mortally wounded. Hamlet and Macbeth’s tragedy is that they themselves are the antagonists to their respective goals.

Family Traditions Essay

How does The Keeping Quilt help you understand traditions and what they mean to families? The Keeping Quilt by Patricia Polacco shows how immigrants came to a new country and passed down traditions to their family overtime. It also shows how traditions are integrated with other cultures to create a new culture. The Keeping Quilt demonstrates how historical and cultural traditions, teaching children social themes through children literature in the classroom can effectively increase cultural values in children’s social skills in reality. In reading the story The Keeping Quilt the author Patricia Polacco reflects on when her great grandma Anna came to America from Russia were grandma came to with only her old dress a babushka and old coat. Grandma later decides to use the old coat and pieces of other family members clothing to make a quilt. â€Å" We will make a quilt to help us always remember home† Anna’s mother said. † It will be like having the family in back home Russia dance around us at night. †(4). Here, the quilt was a significant symbol to the family to always remember their native land. It was used for the birth of family members to the family and used as huppa in weddings. Later the quilt was even used as a tablecloth and covering for caskets at funerals. The quilt became a symbol of the love and family values. The story The Keeping Quilt demonstrates to readers how some traditions and customs from our ancestors are embedded within individuals. These traditions help shape and influence our ideas values and beliefs. However in reading the story The Keeping Quilt it emphasizes some characterics of the historical values in the black African American cultures as to the movie or novel Roots by Alex Haley whereas the family kept their traditional heritage alive with jumping the broom as a symbolic union in marriage during their struggles through slavery. Another example is Escaping slavery: Sweet Clara and the freedom quilt by Sue Ann Miller, were a slave girl, Clara goes on her journey to freedom using the quilt as her symbolic inspiration from slavery. These stories and The Keeping Quilt shows readers how tradition customs individuals inherit from their ancestors used to remind them of their heritage such as the quilt was significant because it served as a piece of history passed down through generation to generation. Although Grandma Anna migrated from Russia she did not abandon her homeland once arriving in America, instead she tried to capture the memories by creating a quilt from different family members clothing each scrap of a family member clothing told a story. In creating the quilt grandma Anna kept her family history alive because it represented every significant moment in the family’s life. The Keeping Quilt also shows how cultures when migrating to a new country bring their own traditions and values. â€Å"Carle was given a gift gold, flower, salt, and bread to welcome her into the world each having a symbolic meaning. Whereas the gold represented she will never know poverty, a flower so she would always know love, salt so life would give her flavor, and bread so that she would never know hunger. However the story also shows how cultures bring their own traditions from their homeland they also create new traditions. Patricia Polacco stated† at my wedding men and women danced together, whereas in the pass they were not allowed to dance together (10). Although some traditions had changed in The Keeping Quilt overtime, the quilt remained an important tool used to connect the families past to the present. It also served as something used to preserve traditions the author Patricia Polacco states â€Å" I too will be a grandmother, and tell the story of The Keeping Quilt to my grandbabies†. 32) In addition, The Keeping Quilt is great example to express it is important to pass the torch of family traditions, this imparts a sense of continuity, bonding and more importantly love. It is incumbent on each generation of parents to keep the family tradition up and running. Family traditions are valuable instruments for child rearing because they install social values and contribute to creating close family ties. Whereas quality family time can help to build and maintain strong family ties sharing is the key ingredient for creating quality moments. On the other hand traditions make sharing easy for offering a common ground of knowledge and experiences. Teaching the new generation to honor the old family traditions through the years can help preserve encouraged interaction through shared activities. Many of most meaningful traditional activities revolve around food, with families gatherings eat and celebrate different events or holidays. In telling her story Patricia Polacco says that she come from past of storytellers, quoting† My fondest memories are sitting around a stove or open fire, eating apples and popping corn, while listening to the old ones tell glorious stories about their homeland and past. † In celebrating, traditions are highly important to welfare of many diverse families were Jews celebrate Passover and Hanukah, African Americans enjoy Kwanzaa, christens honor the birth of Jesus Christ at Christmas, but all giving thanks on Thanksgivings and etc. Traditions help people feel a sense of identity and belonging from a generational perspective, family traditions are practices or belief, they also pave the way for the good times and good memories. They create a connectedness with the past and hope for the future. This book is well integrated into History and Social Studies the study of families ethic religious, occupational and so forth. In reading this book illustration The Keeping Quilt emphasizes the family value and encourages children that valuable tools of family traditions ensure them with warmth and closeness family bondage now.