Monday, January 27, 2020

Product Design of a Fran Blade

Product Design of a Fran Blade 1. Manufacturing Concepts 1.1 Product Design Specification of fan blade To effectively develop a Product Design Specification for the Fan Blade, we need to firstly define the basic functions of the Fan blade. The basic function of a fan is to cause effective air flow in a room and this should be accomplished for a long usage of several years at varying rotations per minute. The quality of fans is rated by their performance in moving the air effectively and quietly. This is monitored by such factors as the pitch, length, and number of ceiling fan blades, and their revolutions per minute (rpms).The angular edges of the ceiling fan blades are termed as the pitches which are particularly important for the effective movement of the air. The shape enables the blade to apply pressure to the air in front of it and thus the air is forced downwards. Thus the important specifications required for our component would be: Effective Air Flow Low Noise levels No Wobbling Durability Light weight for low power consumption Should not get rusted. Aesthetics Low cost The higher the pitch the more is the replacement of air. Good quality ceiling fan blades have a pitch of 12-14 degrees. Blade pitches as low as 8 or 10 degrees leads to poorer performance and thus lower Air flow and higher noise levels. While the short ceiling fan blades with minimum pitches can swirl at high speeds, they do not make for much air circulation and they are noisier than the types of fans with longer blades and higher pitch though they rotate more slowly. One of the issues people sometimes find with their ceiling fans is wobbling. While many people may think that the wobbling is caused by the motor, this is usually not the case. The wobbling of the fan is usually caused by blades that are out of weight alignment. This is due to the use of warped, bent, or unmatched blades. Another reason for wobbling is that the blades may not have been screwed into the brackets straight. Aesthetics are very important in the design of a ceiling fan as the color and design need to live up to the looks of the place of installment. Different materials like solid wood, cross-laminated veneer and less-expensive veneered constant-density boards are used to render the ceiling fan blades a smart and contemporary look. This also may include a metal finish, or a wooden looks. Contrast or reversible ceiling fan blades are another innovative addition to the whole range of ceiling fan blade designing. Ceiling fans usually are not replaced for many a years at a stretch. Thus they are expected to be durable to withstand long usage at varying speeds. Though some designs of fan blades may consume low power at the cost of low air flow, a better design would include the use of a low weight material for the fan blade. Rusting of metallic fan blades can cause unevenness in the balancing of the fan blades because of change in weight and it also will affect the durability. Thus the blades need to be coated effectively with paint to prevent oxidation of the fan blades. 1.2 Wooden and Plastic blades in comparison with Aluminum blades The most widely used materials for making ceiling fan blades are Wood, Plastic and Metal. We have decided on using an aluminum blade for our fan, but let us also consider the other materials too. Wood had been traditionally used as it is a light weight material that is easily available. It also can be carved elegantly to add beauty to the aesthetics of a home. It is known that the conventional blade of a ceiling fan is made of plywood or solid wood. In the manufacturing procedure, such a blade needs to go through many processing steps such as cutting, planing, multi polishing, finishing, painting and printing or covering with printed paper, etc. Moreover, each blade must finally be weighed and three or four blades of the same weight must be selected as a set for the packing operation. Therefore, the whole processing procedure for a wooden blade is quite labor-intensive and time-consuming, and therefore very expensive. The wooden blades are made of longitudinal strips of wood that have their sides laminated together. Due to the thermal cycling and operational stress, the laminated wooden blades may crack along the length of the blade. Under such impact the blade could separate into one or more pieces and send harmful missiles about a room. The plastic blade comprises a blade frame made by injection molding or die casting a commercially available tensionable plastic or fabric. This method of making fan blades greatly reduces manufacturing time and expense. The assembled blade also has a controllable weight error falling within a tolerable range so that the weighing and selecting procedures performed before packing can be greatly simplified. The blade frame is mass produced by plastic injection molding. The blade plate can be pre-printed with various colors and designs, and then mass cut by a cutter, whereby the production speed is greatly increased. Moreover, the blade frame and blade plate can be assembled by means of a specific assembling machine in a factory or assembled outside a factory by contract so that production can be greatly increased with less labor. Thus the manufacturing cost is greatly reduced. The blade has a total weight which is 40-50% that of a conventional wooden blade. Therefore, the power of the b lade-driving motor can be reduced according to the reduced weight. Therefore, the cost of the motor as well as of the blade is lowered. Blades for conventional ceiling fans have been manufactured from numerous materials in a variety of shapes and sizes. Generally, the environment in which the ceiling fan is intended to operate is a significant factor in accompanying drawings, the selection of the material for the blade composition. Rigid materials such as wood or plastic are commonly used on fans intended solely for indoor use, but are prone to warping when subjected to long-term outdoor use due to the extreme fluctuations in temperature and humidity. Thus aluminum blades which are made from aluminum casting seem ideal for outdoor usage. 1.3 Suitable manufacturing process The wooden blades are made from a number of materials and are given a wide variety of finishes. The natural wood and painted blades are made from solid wood, cross-laminated veneer (plywood), and less-expensive veneered constant-density board. The finishes include natural, appliance white, cherry wood, oak, walnut, burled camphor, bleached oak, white, faux granite, rosewood, black, high luster, colors, and many more. Many processing steps are involved such as cutting, planing, multi polishing, finishing, painting and printing or covering with printed paper, etc. Thus the making of a wooden blade seems more laborious and time consuming. From our Product design specification, the wooden blades satisfy the conditions of being light weight, rust proof and having high aesthetic value. But it is not durable as wood might absorb moisture, and this may cause unevenness in the balancing of the blades. Using a plastic blade is considered safer then using a metal or wooden one, this way you dont need a shroud over the blade. Unlike wooden blades, a plastic blade is made by Injection molding process and its production is not laborious and time consuming. The whole plastic blade can be made of one piece, unlike a wooden blade which is mostly an assembly of wooden pieces glued together. Due to the lower material and manufacturing costs and the ease with which they can be mass produced, one-piece molded plastic fans of both the impeller and centrifugal or blower types are being used as air circulating means in numerous appliances such as hair dryers, automobile heaters, refrigerators. Even though such fans are relatively small and light, it is nevertheless desirable that they be dynamically balanced to within accurate limits. The method used for obtaining dynamic balance has involved the molding of a test fan in each mold cavity, testing these molded fans for dynamic balance and thereafter machining away material from selected areas of the mold surfaces thereby to increase the weight of the portions of the fan formed by these areas to obtain a balanced weight distribution. The plastic blade is quite useful as it satisfies most of the Product design specifications. But it cannot be said to be durable as the plastic may warp due to higher temperatures thus affecting the balance of the blades. Thus we see that a metal blade made from aluminum is ideal as it is durable and can be placed outdoors to without being rusted. 2. Mechanical Principles The design proporsal is as follows. The Aluminum blades are supported on a strong plastic plate at the bottom. They are fixed together by two tightly fixed screws one behind the other. The plastic plate is in turn connected to the hub of the fan by two screws. The weight of the Aluminum blade is supported on the plastic plate. They are a total of four blades fixed symmetrically to the hub. 2.1 Mechanical principles relating to the Aluminum Blade Our design of the Ceiling fan with four aluminum plates would have the following mechanical principles acting on it. Force acting downwards due to weight of aluminum blade. Radial force when the fan is in rotating. Normal force of the plastic plate acting upwards Normal force of pushing air down acting up wards. Tangential normal force from the bolts to the Aluminum blade, which causes rotation Torque acting on the bolts due to the weight of the Aluminum blades. 2.2 Analysis For an aluminum plate of dimensions 14cm ÃÆ'- 2.5cm the area of the plate is approximately 35cm. The thickness of the plate is around 0.1 cm. Therefore the volume of the Aluminum blade would be 3.5cm^3. The density of Aluminum is 2.7 gm/cc. Therefore the weight of each Aluminum blade is 9.45gm The RPM at which fans are usually expected to rotate is around 80-220 rpm or 8.37-23 radians per second The radial forces acting on the aluminum blade is F = m?2r where m is the mass of the aluminum blade, ? is the angular velocity and r is the radial distance of the center of mass of aluminum blade from the vertex. The radial distance of the center of mass of the aluminum blade to the center point of the hub = Hub radius + Â ½ length of blade = 6cm +7cm = 13cm Thus the maximum radial force for 23 radians per second = 0.65 N The weight of the aluminum plate is = 0.092 N The Aluminum plate is connected to the plastic plate by 2 bolts. Suppose we use a M2 bolt made of low or medium carbon steel, fully or partially annealed. The Ultimate tensile strength is 1176N The Ultimate shear strength can be approximated by Therefore the Ultimate shear strength is = 882 N The Shear stress acting in the radial direction t = F/[dÃÆ'-(t1+t2)] = 162500 N/ For calculating the Shear stress acting in the tangential direction, we write the moment equation for the bolt. Therefore the Shear stress on the bolt acting in the tangential direction is = = 26750 N/ Now to check for the effect of fatigue on the bolt, we check the S-N curve for Carbon steel. It is to be noted that after = 560N The tensile strength acting on the bolt is much lesser and thus there is no problem of the bolt breaking due to fatigue. 2.3 Effects of Analysis on Design procedure We thus see that the radial force acting on our blades is much more than the weight of the aluminum blade acting downward. It is also more than the tangential stress acting on the bolt. It is also observed that due to the small size of our fan, even one bolt can support each blade. But for balance sake we shall change the design to place the bolts symmetrically across the radial center line from the hub to the blade. Thus a three bolt joint would help create better stability and would prevent wobbling conditions. Since we are using Aluminum blades over plastic blades, we can try to reduce cost by including three blades instead of four. The effect of adding an extra blade does not increase the air flow much, so the fourth blade can be avoided. 2.4 Effect of Final design on Manufacturing/Material Since we have decided on using a 3 bolt joint to fix the blade to the plastic plate, the position of the plastic plate can be shifted on above the aluminum blade for better aesthetic values. It is also clear from our analysis that bigger fan blades can be used for better performance without compromising on the fear of fracture. We could make the baldes from plastic, as it would reduce the cost and make the manufacturing process easier, but it would risk deformation. Since we are looking for using durable blades that can be used in outdoor conditions too, we shall neglect the use of wood and stick to using aluminum as our blade material. 3. References Thomas Cartwright (2005), Fan Blade, Publication number: US 2004/0047735 A1. Norton, Robert L (2006), Machine Design-An Integrated Approach, Pearson Prentice Hall. Leigh A. Junkin (1992), Fan Blade, US Patent 5,110,261, Google patents. Kuo-Neng Chien (1994), Ceiling Fan Blade, US Patent 5,338,156, Google patents. GarrettD.Euler (2002), Standard Metric and USA Bolt Shank Dimensions, available at> [26th April] Dane Roger, Patricia (2001), Eye on Design, Washington post. Roy Beardmore (2010), Bolted Joint Design, available at > [25thApril] H.W. Hayden, W.G. Moatt, and J. Wulff (1965), Structure and Properties of Materials John Wiley Sons. Robert B Gelbard, (1964), Mold for molding dynamically, US Patent 3,136,001, 1964 Google Patents. Brydson, J (1999), Plastics Materials, Butterworths 9th Ed. 2

Sunday, January 19, 2020

Failing to Love Essay

In her story â€Å"Never Marry a Mexican† Sandra Cisneros introduces the reader to the complex issues surrounding the racial and sexual identity of a Mexican-American woman living in the United States. The story is about a Chicana woman and how she seeks revenge on a white lover who has rejected her by becoming the sexual tutor of his teenage son. Cisneros give life to the protagonist Clemencia and paints her as a character in a modern day to demonstrate the pervasive negative impact on Mexican-American women, especially on Chicanas residing within the United States. Clemencia, the protagonist of the story, thinks â€Å"Drew, remember when you used to call me your Malinalli? It was a joke, a private game between us, because you looked like a Cortes with that beard of yours. My dark skin against yours†¦My Malinalli, Malinche, my courtesan, you said, and yanked my head back by the braid† (192). Clemencia is a painter, but she must support herself in other ways too. She sometimes acts as a translator; however for Clemencia Spanish is now the â€Å"native† language. In this discussion of her occupation, Clemencia pronounces â€Å"any way you look at it, what I do to make a living is a form of prostitution† (181). She feels as though when she is not painting she merely sells herself to make a living, much like La Malinche had to do in her relationship with Cortes. Clemencia constantly allows herself to fall in love with unavailable men who are always married and always white. This pattern results from her mother’s constant advice, â€Å"Never Marry a Mexican†. Clemencia’s mother, a lower-class Chicana woman from the United States who married an upper-class Mexican man, felt inescapable discrimination by both her husband’s upper-class family and mainstream U.S. society for her dark skin color. Her answer to this was to marry out, and supposedly up, by divorcing Clemencia’s father and marrying a white man. It is because of this example that Clemencia never sees Mexican men as potential lovers. She explains: â€Å"Mexican men, forget it. For a long time the men clearing off the tables or chopping meat behind the butcher counter or driving the buss I rode to school every day, those weren’t men. Not men I considered as potential lovers. Mexican, Puerto Rican, Cuban, Chilean, Columbian, Panamanian, Salvadorean, Bolivian, Honduran, Argentine, Dominican, Venezuelan, Guatemalan, Ecuadorean, Nicaraguan, Peruvian, Costa Rican, Paraguayan, Uruguayan, I don’t care. I never saw them. My mother did this to me†(179). Here Clemencia is adopting the racist Anglo discourse by lumping all Latinos into one, unified group. Her discussion of â€Å"Mexican† does not distinguish between class and race; to her â€Å"Mexican† means busboys, butchers, and bus drivers. Mexican is no longer the nationality of the people of Mexico, but rather a class of servers who happen to be brown. Here Cisneros demonstrates how the racism of dominant society in America is often internalized and serves to separate the people of disempowered groups. Cisneros makes a strong statement against internalized racism by showing how Clemencia’s rejection of men of her own race and obsession with white men ultimately leaves her lonely. Clemencia comes to the frustrating, yet enlightening realization that the white men in her life have, like her, adopted the mantra â€Å"never marry a Mexican† when she remembers the conversation Drew and she had the last night they spent together. Clemencia recalls in an inner dialogue, how â€Å"we had agreed. All for the best. Surely I could see that, couldn’t I? My own good. A good sport. A young girl like me. Hadn’t I understood†¦responsibilities. You didn’t think? Never marry a Mexican. Never marry a Mexican. No of course. I see. I see† (186). Now Clemencia is now lost without a proper choice of lovers. Mexicans are out of bounds because she could never marry a Mexican, but she now realizes that white men are also out of bounds because they too could never marry a Mexican; they could never marry her. Cisneros is therefore demonstrating how internalized racism does not serve to differentiate certain ethnic Mexicans from others in the eyes of white society, and instead only serves to isolate such Mexican-Americans from the culture to which they are supposed to feel connected. By having Clemencia reject the roles of wife and mother and instead embrace the socially deviant mistress role, Cisneros demonstrates how women who refuse socially acceptable roles often must do so at the expense of other women. In an attempt to claim agency that she would otherwise be denied as a married Chicana in dominant, patriarchal society, Clemencia embraces the role of the mistress. The mistress, because of her strictly sexual nature, is traditionally regarded as a role that reinforces male dominance in heterosexual relationships. Through her role as mistress and her rejection of the role of wife or mother, she attempts to combat the patriarchal system of oppression and makes allowances for flexibility of gender-role expectations. However because the role of the mistress also depends upon there being another woman, the wife, who is betrayed by both her husband and the mistress, the mistress role does not combat the patriarchal system for all women. It does, in fact, reinforce patriarchal oppression of the wife/mother role. Clemencia seems to have little problem acknowledging her betrayal of other women. She candidly tells the reader â€Å"I’ve been accomplice, having caused deliberate pain to other women. I’m vindictive and cruel, and I’m capable of anything† (179). Therefore, in order to escape subscribed gender roles and claim agency in her sexual relationships, Clemencia hurts other women. Cisneros seems to be saying that â€Å"mujeres andariegas†, or daring women who reject the roles society expects of them, do not help to institutionally change society for all women but rather must betray other women in their search for personal freedom. Clemencia attempts to further com bat patriarchal gender roles in her sexual relationships the role of el chingà ³n. When describing sex with Drew, she says â€Å"I leapt inside you and split you like an apple. Opened for the other to look and not give back† (185). Here Clemencia not only takes on the man’s part by â€Å"leaping† inside, she also executes the violent actions attached to the verb chingar. Clemencia imagines that this sexual aggressiveness empowers her over Drew. She says â€Å"You were ashamed to be so naked†¦But I saw you for what you are, when you opened yourself for me† (185). To Clemencia, sexual relations are based on power dynamics, and in order to escape the passive feminine chingada role she must embrace the possessive, dominant, masculine chingà ³n role. Clemencia extends her embodiment of the chingà ³n role into her dealings with the wives, and even a son, of her lovers. More than once she had sex with a lover while his wife was in labor with his child. She confesses â€Å"it has given me a bit of crazy joy to be able to kill those women like that†¦To know I’ve had their husbands when they were anchored in blue hospital rooms, their guts yanked inside out†(184). Clemencia’s relationship with Drew’s son is another example of her fulfilling a sort of â€Å"vindictive sexual satisfaction†. She says of him â€Å"I sleep with this boy, their son. To make the boy love me the way I love his father. To make him want me the way I love his father†¦I can tell from the way he looks at me, I have him in my power†¦I let him nibble†¦Before I snap by teeth† (187). Therefore she seduces him not to satisfy the yearning of her body or hear, but rather to achieve sexual power of the son, which she perceives as giving her indirect power of his parents. Clemencia is ultimately left lonely without a lover, a connection to her culture, or meaningful female friendships. The reason for this lies in the world view Clemencia has inherited from her society. She perceives the world in black and white, in terms of inescapable binaries between which she must choose. She fails to become an acceptable marriage partner to Drew, she fails to escape being hurt by her lovers even as a mistress. Works Cited Never Marry a Mexican. Random House, Inc. and Vintage Books1991

Friday, January 10, 2020

How Does the Constitution Guard Form Tyranny? Essay

Imagine being in world where you are forced to wear certain things. Forced to practice the only religion allowed. Imagine not being able to know what you want, when you wanted! The Constitution was made on September 17, 1787 in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. It was made to provide the framework for the U.S. government. It creates things like presidency, the Congress, and the Supreme Court. From May to September of 1787, men known as framers were thinking of how to make this Constitution. How does the Constitution guard from tyranny? Well first off, a tyranny is when a ruler goes a little crazy with the power given to him/her to rule over the country. The Constitution guards it with the Bill of Rights. Without the Constitution, the U.S. would be under tyrannical law. I say this because without the first amendment (which is, in fact, in the Constitution), we wouldn’t have freedom of religion that means that you would have to practice whatever religion the government wanted you to. Without freedom of speech, we would be forced to say what the government wanted us to against our own will, etc. Without the Bill of Rights (which is in the Constitution too), the government could do whatever they wanted whenever they wanted which gives them too much power, which is a tyranny. So again, how does the Constitution guard against tyranny? By giving us human rights that we are allowed to do as a U.S. citizen. In the Constitution, it says that we must have 3 branches of government. Separation of powers. The federal government is separated into 3 branches, Executive, Judicial, and Legislative. Each branch has its own powers. No one can run the government by itself. This protects against tyranny by not allowing 1 person to rule over everything or to have too much power. There are checks and balances that prevent this from happening. Checks and balances prevent tyranny from happening. Each of the branches has its own power and each branch can check on another branch to make sure that they aren’t overpowering. So big decisions, like passing a law, require cooperation of all branches. So if therefore, going back to the main question, â€Å"how does the Constitution guard against tyranny?† the Executive, Legislative, and Judicial branches block each other from abusing too much power. The Executive can veto legislation and appoint justices. The Legislative is the only one that can make laws and overturn vetoes. The Judicial branch can declare laws and executive actions unconstitutional voiding them. So no one can be too overpowering. Federalism is in the Constitution, because that would be the pursuit of happiness. Federalism is when all the states join together to form a federal government, which has certain powers over the states. The states are not sovereign. It leaves many powers to the states. Thus, if you find too much power in one state, you can move to another. Of course, one mans tyranny is another mans unlighted government, so your mileage may vary. So in my conclusion, the Constitution in fact, DOES prevent tyranny and it gives freedoms and the Constitution is the reason we are who we are today. Sources:

Thursday, January 2, 2020

Behavior and Cognitive Intervention Programs in America

Site Visit Report A student enrolled with an online learning institution is taking a class, and the learning materials are on effective models of helping. An assignment required each student to visit a place of his or her choice, such as a hospital, women’s shelter, halfway house, or the human services department of a company to learn about which behavior or cognitive-behavioral techniques or programs are used. One student chose to visit a halfway house and a women’s community residence rehabilitation center, when one thought the first option was not willing to give enough information, or know if the worker knew what was asked of him. This document will give a brief description on what one has learned from each facility pertaining to†¦show more content†¦During counseling the women are given goals, which often the women look forward to acquiring the ability to earn something, such as a visit to a park, a walk, playing games, or a trip to the mall. Determining a Need for the Program After speaking with individuals during one’s site visits, it was said that the government determines the needs for the program. Los Angeles County mental health department offer a variety of services, providing a safe home for these women is a program well-needed throughout the city and by other organizations as well. The supervisor of Ms. Henderson is who advises about the for the community residence rehabilitation houses and are determined by the number of mental health hospitalizations a patient has had. The hospital then views the patient files, recommending more supervisions for the patient at a residential treatment home like those offered by Tarzana Treatment Center. Plans for New Programs and Interventions At the moment Tarzana Treatment Center does not have any plans for new programs and interventions. The organization is lacking funding to operate the programs offered to current residence. Unfortunately, the idea of possibly sh utting down much needed residence is devastating; one was not looking for the reasons behind possible closure. The staff only interests are operating the current interventions for the clients of the women’s house. The staff will prepare for future ideas and interventions. Other Models andShow MoreRelatedAttention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder ( Adhd )1734 Words   |  7 Pagesadolescent in treatment programs to prevent any unpleasant consequences. The social and psychological interventions play the major role in guiding towards the appropriate treatment of mental health issues because psychosocial interventions had a positive effect on quality of life and positive mental health. Social interventions significantly improved positive mental health, life satisfaction and quality of life (Institute of Medicine (US) Committee on Health and Behavior, 2001). 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