Wednesday, July 31, 2019

Is Children’s Development a Universal Staged Process or a Social and Cultural Process?

There are three main approaches to child development, the scientific, the social constructionist and the applied approach. Each of these approaches look at children’s development from a different stand point. I will go on to explore each approach in turn and how they can help us answer the above question. The scientific approach to child development seeks to explain the facts about child development. It does this by devising theories which are then tested through observations and experiments. A classic example of this is Jean Piaget (1896-1890) who was one of the most influential theorists in child development. Piaget built up a theory about how children’s thinking developed; this is usually referred to as his theory on Cognitive development. He proposed that children do not gradually increase their thinking capacity but that they go through a series of stages or transformations in their thinking. Piaget (1932) proposed that there are 4 main stages in a children’s development; sensor-motor (approximately 0-2yrs), pre-operational (approximately 2-6 yrs), concrete operational (approximately 6-12 yrs) and formal operational (12 yrs and over). His approach can be seen today in how the curriculum is sequenced in schools and in the rise of children’s centres across the UK. Piaget used many similar experiments to support his theory. Examples are, children were asked to compare balls of plasticine after one had been rolled into a sausage; another was for children to compare rows of counters where one row had been stretched into a longer line. In each case the younger children appeared to reason that the amount of counters or plasticine had also changed. (Light and Oates, 1990, PP. 101-106). He was trying to show that children aren’t less cognitively developed than adults but they actually think differently. In many of Piaget’s experiments he tried to show how & at what stage do children see things from another’s point of view. One very famous experiment was a construction of a model of 3 mountains. The largest gray and snow capped, the middle sized brown with a red cross on it and the smallest was green with a house on top. Children were then asked to sit on one side of the model with a doll at the opposite side. They were asked to arrange three pieces of cardboard shaped like the mountains. They they were asked to chose the doll’s view from 10 pictures and finally what the doll would see from other view points. Children younger than about 7 were unable to see things from another view point. Piaget’s claims were bold and his theories and experiments have been criticized by developmental theorists. Developmental theorists now recognise that a child’s development is far more complex than the 4 stages Piaget supported. Lawrence Kohlberg (1927-1987) used Piaget’s stage of development as a starting point to suppose a theory about children’s moral development. He used moral dilemmas to study how children develop the capacity to make moral judgments. Kholberg (Kholberg 1967) proposed that there are 6 stages or levels to a child’s moral development, these are grouped into 3 levels with 2 stages in each; preconventional, conventional and principled. It is extremely rare to progress back in stages and each stage must be completed to move onto the next as each stage is more complex than the last. In Kholberg’s experiments children were given moral dilemmas about right and wrong to discover at what stage a child reaches different levels of cognitive capacity. Kholberg and his team started testing 75 boys in the US and went back and tested them at intervals as they grew into adulthood. However, this was not a cross section of US children as no girls were tested. The data from these scientific studies can be used to assess when a child knows right from wrong. These and similar techniques are used today to carry out assessments for courts deciding whether a child can be held criminally responsible. The social constructionist view of child development looks at the ways that childhood is experienced in different situations and circumstances. Different cultures, religions and social economic conditions have different expectations and beliefs around childhood. These have also been different throughout history. For example in Victorian Britain, children were expected to work in the home, field, streets or in factories. However in modern Britain we expect our children to spend much of their childhood learning at school. Another example is, Maya’s (U212 Video 1, band 1) experiences of childhood in the poor area Chittagong being different to the twins Yasir and Yamin’s experiences in middle class Chittagong. Each have different expectations of their roles within society according to their social boundaries, gender, family and beliefs. Central to the social constructionist approach is the concept of competing discourses of childhood. A discourse is a particular way of thinking or a particular view point that is influenced by our gender, language, history, beliefs, experiences and social boundaries. There are numerous discourses but a romantic discourse sees children as inherently good; a child would only do terrible things if damaged in some way. Contrary to this is the puritanical discourse which sees the child as inherently evil, doing evil things because they are wicked and need punishing. Using the social constructionist view allows us to recognise that a child who is a killer can be seen through these two very different discourses either needing therapy or needing punishment. Social constructionists are not about applying facts and time frames to child development, neither is it just about there being different ‘realities’ created by the way people think and make sense of children. It goes far deeper by exploring what these different ‘realities mean in terms of our moral consequences, what we expect, what we believe our outcomes can be and more importantly what our outcomes can’t be, what is hidden from our view and what we are prevented from doing by our constructed society. Rex Stainton Rogers (1992) says of a socially constructed world: ‘But what about childhood?†¦ For example. The children of Longwitten have come to understand that they ‘have to go to school’, that the human made ‘thing’ down the road is a school, that certain activities belong in he classroom, and others in the playground, and so on. The social world works because we share common understandings. ’ Stanton Rogers says (1992) that it is taken for granted that children will go to school and that this appears normal and the right thing to do in our socially constructed world, and that sometimes we fail to question or imagine anything els e outside of this. The third approach is the applied approach. This focuses on practical issues of childhood such as how should we parent out children, what support and services might we need in order to protect them. The applied approach relies on both the scientic and social constructionist approaches when applying theory and research to social policy, the law and professional practise. I have already looked at the romantic and puritan discourses. The romantic discourse believes that children are naturally good, therefore children who commit crime should be rehabilitated which Stuart Asquith (1996) describes as the Welfare model and the puritan discourse the ‘Justice’ model. The welfare model looks at children who do wrong as doing so because they have been mistreated / deprived or having been disadvantaged in some way. These children need nurturing and need our care to overcome these disadvantages. The Justice model looks as children as being responsible when they reach an age where they can be held partially accountable for their crimes. These children need to be treated as criminals and punished accordingly. Asquith’s applied approach draws on both the scientific aspects of children’s moral development and the social constructionist view on how culture and society affect us as humans.. In looking at all three approaches it is clear that they are all complex and interplay greatly with each other. The scientific approach concentrates on identifying universal stages of children’s development. These are a series of stages which all children pass through from immaturity to maturity. The danger is that these can result in a picture of a universal child which is mainly based on a western culture. There is scientific research to determine when a child can be morally responsible for a crime and scientific research has produced lots of data on what reformatory regimes appear to work for young offenders. But we must remember that the child is not a passive participant in this research. The outcomes will depend on both the researchers and child’s social constructions of their worlds. In contrast the social constructionists’ view is that immaturity and maturity are complex constructs that we have made for ourselves depending on a whole range of outside influences, these will be different for each one of us. Children do not develop autonomously from culture and society and take many different routes to maturity depending on many things including gender, culture, religion, and their social and economic circumstances in which they find themselves.

Tuesday, July 30, 2019

Fear of Crime

Introduction Fear of Crime in members of our society today has been widely researched. For the purpose of this essay, fear of crime is used in the context of an individual’s perceived risk of becoming a victim of crime. In this essay it is argued that the elderly and the youngest members of our society are the most fearful of crime and that, of these age groups the elderly have the lowest risk of becoming victims of crime. Firstly, research shows that fear of crime is wide spread and that certain age groups are more fearful of becoming victims than others. Secondly, that the Media’s portrayal of crimes contributes to society’s perceptions of safety and crime itself, increasing fear of crime in these age groups. Thirdly, that the Elderly fears of crime and perceived risk of victimisation is also contributed to by social and physiological factors, such as vulnerability that leads to altered lifestyle changes. Data confirms that levels of victimisation rates are low for the elderly but high for the young, which is in contrast to those in the elderly age group having heightened levels of fear. In conclusion, fear of crime is becoming a serious societal issue as our population ages being that the elderly are becoming the most fearful of crime whilst the youngest age group with the highest fear are most likely to become victims of crime. Discussion Firstly, we see that in modern society today that a growing fear of crime is widely recognised. It is acknowledged that the elderly aged 65 and over, and the youngest members aged 16 – 24 of our society have the highest fear of crime in comparison to other age groups(Johnson, 2005). Australia has an aging population (James, 1992 p. 1), for those 85 and over numbers has doubled and there are increased numbers of those aged 65 and over. The last twenty years spanning from 1990 to 2010 has seen the number of elderly people in our society increase by 170%; in comparison to around 30% for total population growth for Australia, where those age 15 are seen to be decreasing (Australian Bureau of Statistics, 2010). This correlated to the findings from the 2004 International Crime Victimisation Survey (Johnson, 2005) showing that the age groups 15 – 24 and 65 and over were the most likely to answer the series of questions asked around feelings of safety when walking alone at night, utilising or waiting for public transportation at night and whether they believed they would be victims of burglary in the ext year as unsafe or very unsafe. Secondly, it is argued that the Media’s representations of criminal acts and events through sensationalised stories depicting crimes that are violent and those with a sexual nature; these have contributed to and influenced levels of fear and perceptions of risk for the age groups 15 – 24, and 65 years and over. The first edition of Violence Today (Chappell, 1989) links society’s perceptions of violent crime to media stories and publicity that is focussed on crimes of a violent nature that attributes to growing fears of crime posturing â€Å"Australia is succumbing to a torrent of crime beyond the control of traditional system of traditional law† (Chappell, 1989). The focus on violent and sexually explicit crimes by the media has left our society with the misconception that these sorts of crimes are an everyday occurrence. The Australian Survey of Social Attitudes (Roberts & Indermaur, Australian Institute of Criminology 2007) recorded that over half of those aged 65 and over believed that crime had increased over a period of two years before the survey was completed, this is attributed to an individual’s media consumption – whether it be newspapers, internet or television – of factual or fictional medians (Kort-Butler & Sittner Hartshorn, 2011). The Australian Survey of Social Attitudes also collected data on the medians that individuals get their crime and criminal justice beliefs and views from, and observed â€Å"that the media remains the most important source in informing Australians’ views of crime†(Roberts & Indermaur, Australian Institute of Criminology 2007 p. 9). The importance given to certain crimes in the daily newspapers and other media sources shows us proof to the fact that crime is a topic that has the public’s interest and is a focus of their worries (Australian Bureau of Statistics, 2001). It goes on to discuss the fact that crime as reported on by the media increases the public’s levels of fears and that there is little or no correlation to actual levels of violent crime in our society today. Thirdly, crime victimisation data collected by the Australian Bureau of Statistics (2008-2009, p. 17) reflects that those 65 and above are the least likely to be victims of crime with a victimisation rate much lower than all other age groups in the category of personal assault. This cannot be said or the younger age groups of 16 -24 who’s fear of crime can be linked to high numbers of victimisation in the same category. Carcach, Graycar & Muscat (2001) attribute social and communal activities that elderly people partake in to this anomaly between the elderly fear of crime and victimisation rates. The change in activities of the elderly over time may contribute to the lower victimisation rates reported where on the other hand the young tend to have many more communal social activities which serve to increase their chances of victimisation. The data collected from the Crime Victimisation Survey (Australian Bureau of Statistics, 2008-2009) although it showed very little difference between the fear levels for the youngest age group and that of the older age group of 65 and over the differences in social activities and community relationships and the fact that the elderly are far less likely to be out alone without a companion, or travelling on public transport or waiting for the same can be accounted for, by personal vulnerability. A key concept used to explain high levels of perceived risk of victimisation is that of vulnerability. Powell & Wahidin (2007, p. 94) assert â€Å"the fear of crime operates on a myriad of emotional and practical levels from feeling vulnerable and isolated, to affecting personal well – being†. Vulnerability has been attributed to contributing to fear of crime within the elderly age group (Carcach et al, 2001). It has been argued that ‘personal vulnerability’ (Franklin, Franklin & Fearn, 2008 p. 06), the inability for an individual to protect themselves due to lack of physical strength (James, 1992) and the feelings of â€Å"powerlessness to resist attack’ (Callanan & Teasdale, 2009 p. 362) and their worry of being able to heal from an act of victimisation (Johnson, 2005 p. 33) explains the disparity between higher levels of fear and that of actual victimisation. Cossman & Rader (2011, p. 143) add further to this that most elderly people are now livi ng alone, either having lost a lifetime partner through death, or hospitalisation due to frailty or illness also attributes to higher levels of fear of crime. A workshop held between several services and organisations in South Australia on Crime and the Elderly identified that elderly people thought themselves to be the most victimised by crime, that during the day break-ins caused them fear, however break-ins with the potential for personal assault caused the most fear after dark, these fears impacted on all aspects of their lives, which in turn has restricted and isolated them from their communities and the lifestyles they have been previously accustomed to living. Doherty, 1991, p. 1)(Johnson, 2005, p. 29) The elderly by far have the highest levels of fear that are based on misconceptions that they perceive about crime in our society today. The young 15– 24 years of age perceive their risk of victimisation to be high and statistics show that in 2005 this age group had the highest victimisation rate for crimes against the person ( Australian Institute of Criminology, 2006). Conclusion Fear of crime in our society has far reaching implications, Australia has an aging population that exhibits one of the highest levels of fear of crime that can be attributed to feelings of vulnerability, yet statistics have shown the elderly to be the least likely to be victims of crime. Their perceived fear of victimisation has lead to changes in their lifestyles in order to protect themselves, based on misconceived notions that they are the most victimised in society. The young aged 16-24 years of age also have a high level of perceived risk from crime but this is in proportion to the victimisation rates recorded for this age group. Perceptions of fear and perceived risk of crime are contributed to by the media’s portrayal of crimes that have a violent or sexual nature which further serves to contribute to a growing fear of crime. The fact that society tends to get its views and beliefs of crime and criminal justice from the media means that misconceptions about the perceived risk of victimisation tend to be over the top and misinformed. References Australian Institute of Criminology 2006, Australian Crime: facts and figures 2005, Crime Facts Info, no. 120, Australian Institute of Criminology, Canberra Australian Bureau of Statistics, 2001, ‘Measuring Wellbeing: Frameworks for Australian Social Statistics, 2001, cat. no. 4160. 0’ Australian Bureau of Statistics, Canberra. Australian Bureau of Statistics, ‘2008-2009, Crime Victimisation, Australia, cat. no 4530. 0, Australian Bureau of Statistics, Canberra. Australian Bureau of Statistics, 2010, ‘Population by Age and Sex, Australian States and Territories, cat. No. 3201. 0’, Australian Bureau of Statistics, Canberra. Australian Bureau of Statistics, 2010, Australian Social Trends, cat no. 4102. 0, Australian Bureau of Statistics, Canberra. Callanan, V. J. , & Teasdale, B. (2009). ‘An exploration of gender differences in measurement of fear of crime’. Feminist Criminology, 4(4), 359-376. doi:10. 1177/1557085109345462  Ã‚  Ã‚   Carcach, C. Graycar, A. & Muscat, G. 2001 ‘The Victimisation of Older Australians’, Trends and Issues in Crime and Criminal Justice, no. 212, Australian Institute of Criminology, Canberra. Chappell, D, 1989. Violence Today, no. 1 Violence, Crime and Australian Society’, National Committee on Violence, Australian Institute of Criminology, Canberra. Doherty, B. 1991, Home Assist – A new approach to House Security, Department of Employment and Further Education, Adelaide. Fearn, N. E. , Franklin, T. W. , & Franklin, C. A. (2008). ‘A multilevel analysis of the vulnerab ility, disorder, and social integration models of fear of crime’. Social Justice Research, 21(2), 204-227. doi:10. 1007/s11211-008-0069-9   Hartshorn, K. J. S. , & Kort? Butler, L. A. (2011). Watching the Detectives: Crime Programming, Fear of Crime, and Attitudes about the Criminal Justice System’, Sociological Quarterly, 52(1), 36-55. doi:10. 1111/j. 1533-8525. 2010. 01191. x   James, M. 1992, ‘The Elderly as Victims of Crime, Abuse and Neglect’, Trends and Issues in Crime and Criminal Justice, no. 37, Australian Institute of Criminology, Canberra. Johnson, H. 2005, ‘Crime Victimisation in Australia: Key Results of the 2004 International Crime Victimisation Survey’, Research and Public Policy Series, no. 64, Australian Institute of Criminology, Canberra. Powell, J. & Wahidin. A. (2008). ‘Understanding old age and victimisation: A critical exploration’. International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy,  28(3/4), 90-99. doi:10. 1108/01443330810862160 Rader, N. , & Cossman, J. (2011). ‘Fear of Crime and Personal Vulnerability: Examining Self-Reported Health’, Sociological Spectrum,  31(2), 141-162. doi:10. 1080/02732173. 2011. 541339 Roberts, L. & Indermaur, D. 2007, ‘What Australians think: about crime and justice: results from the 2007 Survey of Social Attitudes’, Research and Public Policy Series 101, Australian Institute of Criminology, Canberra.

Mental health Essay

â€Å"Research suggests that burnout and low job satisfaction are significant problems among mental health workers and may be especially so among those working with clients with serious mental illness.†(Purdue) Many people suffer from mental illness and addiction, and many of these people end up in a community health center where social workers/case managers help them to cope with their issues and be the problem solvers for them. The ratio of patient to case worker is extremely off balanced and many case workers become overwhelmed and experience burn out. â€Å"Burnout is a state of emotional, mental, and physical exhaustion caused by excessive and prolonged stress. It occurs when you feel overwhelmed and unable to meet constant demands. As the stress continues, you begin to lose the interest or motivation that led you to take on a certain role in the first place.†(helpguide) When a case worker experiences burnout they put their patients at risk because they are supposed to be the solid ground for the patient to stand on and if the case manager is not motivated to help anymore they will do the patient no good in helping them move forward. Burnout is a dangerous state of mind for a case worker to have since they are supposed to be responsible, motivated and in a positive state of mind to help others. When burnout is present there is a greater chance of a case being mishandled and that can cause many different problems, not just for the person being helped, but for the case worker and their facility. The signs of burnout come in many different forms, such as physical, emotional and behavioral. Physical signs of burnout are feeling tired and drained most of the time, headaches and muscle aches and feeling sick all of the time. Emotional signs of burnout are loss of motivation, sense of failure, feeling helpless, trapped and defeated, always having a negative attitude; feeling detached from the world and decreased sense of accomplishment. Behavioral signs of burnout are withdrawing from responsibilities, using food, drugs or alcohol to cope, isolating yourself from others, taking out frustrations on others, procrastinating getting things done, skipping work and neglecting other responsibilities. The signs of burnout are a very serious matter, especially to a caseworker who should be in a positive state of mind when helping others. If a caseworker is not working to the best of their abilities the outcome of an individual’s case may not turn out positively and they may suffer even more to have to go through the process more than once. It also makes the client not trust others, making it harder for the next person who may be the case manager who may be dedicated to the case, but be ‘punished’ for the mistakes made by a previous case worker. The client has to trust their caseworker in order for them to work together and successfully work through their problems, a case manager must be able to provide their full support and attention. In order to prevent burn out an individual needs a positive support system whenever they feel burned out or have an overload of stress that can cause an eventual burnout. An individual should always know their limits and know when enough is enough and not push themselves over the edge. There should be a shared responsibility amongst caregivers/case managers and the load of work should be rationed evenly, as not to overwhelm any particular person. Caregivers should be able to ask for help when they are in need, because they are always helping other people and can possibly forget to take care of themselves. It is important to know that in order to help others, you must first help yourself and take care of your mental and physical wellness to be at your best for other people. There are caregiver support groups available also, which can help emotionally because everyone is sharing their experiences and it can show you that there are others out there who feel the same way you do and are going through the same things. Support groups can also help individuals share their ‘tricks’ they’ve learned with coping with stress and maybe give information for other helpful outputs that are beneficial to use as a caregiver. Caregivers are the most important people in the community; they are selfless and help those in need, oftentimes putting themselves last. Unfortunately burn out is a common trend in the caregiver service because of all the effort put into each individual case, it can become extremely overwhelming to deal with. The turnover rate among social workers, caregivers and case managers is very high because of burn out. These jobs are very demanding and it takes a special kind of person to be able to cope with these duties and continue to help others without ‘losing themselves’ and suffering a burn out.

Monday, July 29, 2019

BA 200 Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

BA 200 - Essay Example The application of a comprehensive school reform in culturally and linguistically diverse school, for instance, is â€Å"both a rewarding and challenging enterprise† (Datnow, Borman, Stringfield, Overman, and Castellano 162). It is concluded that learning and student experience becomes more enriched through these programs. While CSUB implements policies that  prevent discrimination against gender, racial, and religious minorities, it lacks programs that promote and support the needs of minority students. University organizations, programs, and activities usually cater to the needs of the dominant majority of white, heterosexual students. Minority students are left with the choice of joining these groups and participating in their activities. This lack of choice in  organizations and activities tend to limit students' freedom. In a study of policy changes by D’Augelli, he states that â€Å"lesbians and gay men on campus were empowered† (126). It is, therefore, encouraged to establish organizations and promote activities that will benefit minority students. Different initiatives can be enacted to encourage students exercise their freedom within the premises of the university. First, a public space can be devoted to students where they can write the things they like and dislike  about the university.

Sunday, July 28, 2019

Applying concepts Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Applying concepts - Essay Example To address this question, managerial economic concepts and socio-political tools need to be taken into consideration. From the video Can the U.S. Maximize the Benefits of Chinese Foreign Direct Investment? It is evident that Chinese companies operation in United States has proved to be economically beneficial to the locals and the national economic performance at large. The firms like offer employment opportunities to the United States citizens and this has helped reduce unemployment rate with significant boost in overall national income level (Moran,2013). Comparative wage rate between China and United States indicates significant gap with the later having higher rate and more skilled personnel. It is therefore economically feasible to the United States allow Chinese firms operate locally and offer minimum wage rate. This reflects outsourcing of jobs that has seen states like South Carolina boast higher employment level. It is also important to note that United States do not experience exploitation as most of the Chinese firms outsource other factor input from other countries with value creation a ctivity as the central activity in United States. The socio-political framework of the United States is strongly hinged on American way of doing things including workplace practices and that has placed them at vantage point. Take the case of Haier which was compelled to hire an American executive manager in an effort to effect America-style human resource practices. This means that united States have substantial participation in the Chinese foreign direct investment entities hence increased gain to the local economy. United States firms have a competitive edge against other multinationals of foreign origin and for China to penetrate and establish its production plants, there is increased level of productivity and revival of dead industries. The case study of Top-Eastern Group which specializes in making drill bits gives a picture of gains made so far by

Saturday, July 27, 2019

Ketchikan, Alaska Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Ketchikan, Alaska - Essay Example This however drew attention to the enormous wood reserves and in 1954; one of the biggest pulp mills in the world was established. This too was closed down as a result of obsolete equipments and severe environmental regulations. (Thompson, 2008). The city is a home to a large number of different tribes and communities and hence presents a very wide and diverse culture. Many different tribes that have origins ranging from Indian to American live in this area. The famous tribes of Ketchikan are: Inupiat, Yupik, Aleut, Inuit, Tlingit, Haida, Tsimshian and Eyak. Akin to the various tribes, there are a range of religions prevalent in the area but the most widely practiced are Christianity and Buddhism. There are a number of churches in the city like St John’s Church on the mission street and the First Lutheran Church on the Tongass avenue. These religions have made an impact on the life of the people of Ketchikan as well as the whole region of Alaska. Different Institutions like sc hools, colleges as well as churches reflect the ideologies of these different religions spread throughout the state. (Ketchikan, Alaska) The city contains plenty of historical sites and museums that attract the visitors.

Friday, July 26, 2019

Cooperative marketing Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Cooperative marketing - Essay Example Cooperative marketing alliances will help both the parties to access distributions channels which are normally unavailable to them. Moreover, cost cutting, additional exposure to some specific or targeted segments of customers, etc are some other advantages of cooperative marketing. For example, the Intel inside advertisement will help not only the computer manufacturers, but also the software developers like Microsoft as well. Moreover this advertisement can increase the reputation of the small computer manufacturing companies since the customers will respect tie ups with such high profile companies immensely. Cooperative marketing help the companies to reach out non-competing businesses in the market that have the same type of clientele and resources. Cooperative marketing often results in cross-product advertising which may encourage the customers to think that "if you like this, then you'll probably like that". In other words, the reputation of one company can be exploited by the other company in cooperative marketing and advertising. Moreover, the companies in cooperative marketing alliances can swap their mailing lists or may agree to include the other's marketing ads in their mailings. Thus cooperative marketing can save money; at the same time it can reach out more customers. Many people have the false belief that cooperative marketing is all about cooperative advertising. This is not true. Besides advertising, cooperative marketing can help companies to increase their common economic, social, and cultural needs and aspirations. For example, the Intel inside advertisement is not only helping the computer manufactures; but it is helping the Intel Company as well. When more computers were sold as a result of the Intel inside ad, Intel can sell more of their microprocessors and thus they will also be benefitted economically out of the cooperative marketing. Cooperative marketing will also increase the bargaining power of the product manufacturers and it ca n help the company to deal directly with the end users or the customers. Cooperative marketing can also help companies to gather market intelligence. â€Å"The first step in moving towards a cooperative market ­ing arrangement is to make sure all individuals are on the same page. This is achieved by making sure that all mem ­bers are onboard to operate for the same purpose† (West, 2008, p.2). It is impossible to conduct cooperative marketing by two entirely different companies. The companies which are engaged in cooperative marketing should have similar products and interests. For example, both Intel and Microsoft are working in the computer industry and hence they can easily engage in a cooperative marketing tie up. On the other hand it is difficult to anticipate a cooperative marketing collaboration between Microsoft and BP Oil Company because of the huge differences in their product portfolios. The second requirement for cooperative marketing is the mutual trust and be liefs. It is difficult to conduct cooperative marketing if the parties watch each other suspiciously. For example, it is difficult to see a cooperative marketing campaign by Microsoft and Apple Inc together since they are the fierce competitors in the market. Global Gadgets Imports (GGI) Company is an importer of home decor and gift items and hence they can

Thursday, July 25, 2019

Software Tools for Qualitative Research Assignment

Software Tools for Qualitative Research - Assignment Example The latest version is the NVivo 10 designed to interact with social media platforms (Bazeley & Jackson, 2013). NVivo is able to preserve styles in their original documents forms including documents in non-English language. NVivo has containers called nodes, which can be assigned demographic data or attributes of features (Bazeley & Jackson, 2013). According to Bazeley & Jackson (2013), the nodes can further be rearranged in hierarchies, or be merged with similar nodes to form a single node for general representation. The occurrence of multiple sources which share common characteristics can also be grouped together to form various distinct classifications (Bazeley & Jackson, 2013). Schà ¶nfelder (2011) wrote that demographic information such as gender and age can be easily imported from external sources in form of text file or spreadsheet formats. NVivo10 further integrates automatic connection to face book, twitter, and LinkedIn datasets for the purposes of patterning data (Bazeley & Jackson, 2013). Bazeley & Jackson (2013) further added that, the package also has querying tool, which can be used to interrogate qualitative data to test theories or generate new information. With NVivo10, one can run dynamic modelling system to represent a project in real time or capture the project at a specified point in time using the static model (Flick, 2009). MAXQDA was developed from winMAX software tool, which had been designed in late 80s (Schà ¶nfelder, 2011). With MAXQDA, one is able to create and import texts in rich text format (Schà ¶nfelder, 2011). Referring to Flick (2009), MAXQDA software tool is able to extract text document from the internet by just dragging the documents from the websites and dropping them on the programs interface. Most objects and documents can also be imported in the form of embedded objects of the file